New-State Tribune (Oklahoma City, Okla.), Vol. 16, No. 50, Ed. 1 Thursday, October 13, 1910 Page: 4 of 8
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NEW-STATE TRIHtJNE. THURSDAY. OCTOBER 13, 1910.
Publish.-.1 every Thursday by the New-State Tribune, 217 223 North Harvey
Street, Oklahoma City, Okla.
"Kiiiered ax second-class matter July 22, 1S0S. at the pontoltice at Okla-
homa. Okla., under the act of March 3. 1H7S."
TERM OF SUBSCRIPTION.
One year in D. 8. and possessions, and Mexico MOO
Blx Months 50
Other Countries In Postal Union 2.00
Addrens all communications to Now-State Tribune, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma.
CHA8. N. HASKELL. ...Editor
BEN WATT Associate Kdltor and MauaKer
W. O. ^Tard. Nasterti Representative 63 Tribune Hid*., New York
Harrj ft. fisher. Western Representative Iloyce llldg., Chicago
J. H. Codbold. Teias Representative 612 613 Juanlta Illdg., Dallas, Texas
tliat ilie cominissioncra performed lit the Constitutional Convention delecatt
districts, and don't forget the Democrat, had no representation among these
wore Republicans and nome
- ' 1 1 • • M V.llt.M Ot hi - jH'ii'il
rhei, members or the county hoards are appointed by the state board '-bed. but It sjieaks well lor t
from among a list of names submitted by the county committees of the
respective political panics (See Section six, page three hundred eighteen,
Session Laws, first state legislature). These nonpartisan county boards
In turn appoint the precinct judges and inspectors and the Republicans liuv.
ntatlon on these precinct boards. In turn the precinct boards appoint
ount, tabulate and certify to the votes (See section
page ihree hundred twenty tour, Session Laws, arst state legislature! and
the Republican! must have at least one man among tlftese lour counters and
I had from careful Inquiry that It Is the practice throughout the stale advised
and approved by the state election board, to give the Republicans two out of
> Inct officers from eight of these precincts. Some of these precinct officers
four offh lal
willing to deceive
a Joke under the
to the people of oklahoma:
In (lines of political imitation It la often the case that extreme state-
ments an' made, sometimes from a lack of real knowledge of the facts, and
at times from a desire to accomplish partisan purposes even to the extent of
a willingness to mislead the public.
Inasmuch as the government In the Interest of (he people must be the
creation and act of the people themselves, It is, therefore. Indispensable (hat
elections be properly conducted so as lo voice the sentiment of the voters of
the state. The people of the stale can safely be trusted lo do the right tiling
and to this end It Is the duty of every citizen to ascertain the truth rather
than (o trust to partisan clamor.
Far too often we find political managers or candidal
the public before election and treat their deception a
applanation that anything Is fair in politics or war.
Noticing the gross misrepresentations of the election laws of Oklahoma I
doem It my duty as a public official to cail attention to the facts and give the
Inferences so that every voter can get the law and read It Tor himself.
Partisan clamor says that it is impossible lo get an honest election
under the present Oklahoma, law and. without going Imo detail!, thaj
the Governor has the entire election machine in his own hands and that the
local election officers can steal the ballot boxes, falsify the returns, elect any-
body they pelase, and suffer only the trifling punishment of n twenty-live
I believe the above Is about a sample of (lie Indefinite character of the
criticisms. They point to the Oklahoma election law as being infamous and
without a parallel In other Btates. and particularly commend (lie virtues of
the old Oklahoma Territory election law.
Now, voter, let us lay aside these criticisms for a moment and see what
our law is. Vou will find it In the Session Laws of the llrst state legislature,
beginning on lfage Three Hundred Sixteen. Passed by the tlrBt stale legisla-
ture and signed by W. II. Murray, Speaker of (he House. Henry S. Johnson,
President pro-tern of the Senate.
governor's powers and duties.
The llovernor appoints a state board, composed of three members, on which
representatives of (he two leading political parties are placed, and there the
Governor's powers and privileges end. He has nothing whatever to do with
the work of the board or with the appointment of any of (he local boards or
oflicors The opposition would have you believe thui it Is something terrible
and unheard of to put thai power (o appoint (he s(a(o election board In (he
hands of the Governor of tho s(a(e.
I*t us ,oe the Oklahoma Territory law, being Section Tweny-nlne Hun-
dred Twenty, Wilson's Oklahoma Territory Statute, made the general elec-
tlou board consist of the Governor of the Territory and two me,, appointed
by him. so you will see that when 1 waa elected Governor the candidate who
ran against me for the office was himself Chairman of the board that con
ducted the election, notwithstanding he was my opposing candidate him
the four countera.
Now. In view ol the selllsli practice of the Republican politicians in the
prominent states, above mentlo I, in excluding the Demo, rats from repre-
sentation on their state boards In most of those sinles, what Justice can there
be In complaining of this feature of the Oklahoma law which gives the minor,
ity party representation on every board from the state board down to the
smallest precinct board? 1
I have i.arefully read tbe various criticisms of the operation of out elec-
(Ion lau and our election board.
I-It us see what they are. They say that In some localities there were
not sufficient number of ballots for all wlio desired lo vole at the August
primary The law of Oklahoma on this subject, being Section nine, page three
hundred sixty-due, Session Laws, says that the state board shall send to the
county board a number of ballots for each voting precinct equal to the number
of votes cast in such precinct at I he election plus twenty per cent additional
From careful Inquqlry 1 have failed to And a single lnstanco in which the
tale board failed to furnish the number of ballots required by law. In fact, it
was the rule of the slate board to furnish more than the law required but not
In a single caae did It furnish less.
The county boards In turn distribute (lie ballots to the precinct boards.
Now It is possible that In some localities the growth of population may hav,
been greater than anticipated by (his law, but so fur as 1 have learned from
'a"ful 1,1 "'<• shortage of ballou was due lo (he fact'thai .1 A Harris.
Chairman of the Republican State Committee, us has been numerously re-
ported to me, encouraged the consuming of Democratic ballots as rapidly as
possible as a menus of embarrassing the vote on the grandfather clnuse If
that rumor Is true then It Is Mr. Harris's methods that need amending instead
of the election law of Oklahoma.
Hemocrats, and every honest man In the
jtnts every offender prosecuted and pun
•lection laws of Oklahoma when offenders
against the law are limited to less than one liair of one per cent of the twenty
three hundred precincts of the state. Illinois, Indiana. Ohio, Massachusetts,
ami other li, publl, an states would wonderfully Improve their record of recent
years If they could say that they had limited their election offenders to even
; 11 v*' l et- ci-nt or the total number of precincts in their state, and while Okla
hotna's per cent of the offender* is small, we should not cease our vigilance.
Let us make every precinct election honest, wherever It is within the bounds
ol human possibility to do so, but remember this no political party can be
condemned for some individuals violating laws enacted by that patty. It Is
the duty of the party In power to make for the people the best possible laws '
and then enforce them to the fullest extent possible, but there will always be
someone who will violate every criminal statute of every state In the union.
hi- law may say it is a crime to violate any particular law and may punish
the Offender bui thut does not prevent criminal* from taking chances, and so
long as we have laws thero will be aomeone who will violate them and the
people can do no better than to prescribe penalties and enforce them when !
the law Is violated. If Oklahoma had eight sets of crooked precinct officers i
in (he lasi election out of twenty three hundred such sets of office™ Okla-
homa was making an excellent record, but let us make It better whenever '
With the above analysis of tbe criticisms and corrections of the false '
statements of those "wMo are out and want in" and would falsify the ten
commandments to accomplish their desires, I would further call attention to '
what comes to my ears as a gross violation of some of our election laws above
referred to and which carry with them severe penalties and fine and imprison-,
The people of Oklahoma in the exorcise of their
second enacted an amendment to the Constitution of
sovereign right on August I
our state prescribing
The state board is composed of the Secretary of State, two supreme
JudKes and two district Judges. fcvery one of them may he of the same polit-
Tho state board is composed of the Secretary of State. State Auditor and
State Treasurer. All likely to be of the same political party
The state board is composed of the Governor, Secretary of State. Auditor
And I reasurer. All likely to be of the same political party.
The state board is composed of the Governor, Secretary of Stat*
Treasurer and Attorney General. All likely to be of the same
The state board Is composed of the Governor. Secretary of State,
and Attorney General. All likely to be of the same political party
The state board i4 composed of the Governor. Secretary of Stat«
Attorney General. All likely to be of the same political party.
The state board is composed of three persons, all appointed by the Gov
Referring to the claim that the election law of Oklahoma permits all
kinds of robbery of the ballot boxes, falsifying returns, defeating candidates
etc.. and that there is only a twenty-five? dollar fine for any violation of our'
election law. it will only be necessary to read the sections which I now refer
to to show the people what a gross falsehood this statement is. and I assert
that the elections of Oklahoma are protected by penalties as severe as states
In general, particularly the Republican states
Here are some of the penalties:
Klectton Inspector refusing or failing to deliver election supplies or open-
ing packages containing supplies or permitting any other person to do so. is
guilty of a misdemeanor -penalty from one hundred to five hundred dollars'
fine and Imprisonment in jail from thirty (o one hundred twenty days (See
Section twenty. Article one, Session Lbwb).
Election officer deceiving a voter when requested to aid In stamping
his ballot as misdemeanor—penalty not less than fifty nor more than live hun-
dred dollars' fine and imprisonment in the county jail not less (ban thirty days
nor more than six months. (See Section four. Article six. page (hree bun
tired forty-four, Session Laws).
Failure to properly handle mutilated ballots a misdemeanor—penalty not
less than (w«jn(y.flve nor more than Ave hundred dollars' fine and imprison
ment In the county Jail not less than thirty days nor more than six months.
(See Section five. Article six, page three hundred forty-live. Session Lawsi.
Permitting challenged voter to vote improperly a misdemeanor—penalty
not less than fifty nor more than live hundred dollars' tine and may be iin
prisoned six months or less. (See Section six. Article six. page three hun
died forty-live. Session Laws).
Member precinct election board absent without tiling excuse a mis-
demeanor-penalty not less than live nor more than twenty-five dollars' fine
(See Section one, Article seven, page (hree hundred forty-six, Session Laws,
Official counter absent without filing excuse a misdemeanor-penalty
not less than five nor more than twenty-five dollars' tine. (See Secdon (wo,
Article seven, page three hundred forty-six. Session Laws).
Procuring illegal voting, both the voter himself and the person who pro-
cures him to vote guilty of felony—penalty from one to three years in the
penitentiary. (See Sectlou three. Article seven, page three hundred fortv-slx
Making or procure to be made false affidavit to obtain permission to vote
Is u felony—penalty from one to three years in the state penitentiary. (See
Section four, Article seven, page three hundred forty-seven, Session Lawsi
Penalty for removal of any ballot, ballot box, tally sheet, stencil pad or
other election supplies oulslde (lie Inclosiire In which the election is held or
having the same in ones possession outside of said Inclosure Is a misde-
meanor—penalty not less than twenty-five nor more than live hundred dollars
and imprisonment not less than thirty nor more than ninety days.
Failure of Inspector to deliver election returns or for altering certificate,
! °r other writing connected with returns, or opening the boxes or en-
velope. or mutilating the boxes or returns while In his care is a felony—
| penalty being not less than one nor more than six years in the state peni-
(enuary. (See Section seven. Article seven, page (hree hundred forty-eight
| Session Laws).
Corporations contributing to political campaign fund or the officer or
agent of such
rrr srar ,r — -a—"•1 =• - s
INDIANA county Ji"1 not less than thirty nor more than one hundred twenty days (See
The state board Is composed of the Oovernor and two person, appointed 1^™ with"..^"!^
by the Oovernor interference with election or refusal to obey the election officers is a
So you will note that particularly In Republican slates the Oownor "" '"a" "U""ml d°lta™'
either appoints the board or It Is composed of state officers, who are almost U,ws ' **** hu,",K"d S,,s8to"
certain every one of them, to be Republicans, unless, of course, a Democratic Bribery, givin- ■ vthing of lu, , r.w.rri , «
candidate for one of these offices should occasionally he elected to a state felony pejalfy no, less ' to mfl,,pnce H votcl' 18 "
qualifications for persons who desire to vote and that law must be respected
as long .is it is a part of the Constitution of Oklahoma, and any attempt to vio !
late it or any advice or encouragement given by one persons to others to at-
tempt to violate it by force or fraud or misconduct at the election will be
treated with the seme severity that any other violation or our election laws 1
There have been numerous affidavits filed with me to the effect that one !
or the candidates for a prominent state office is openly advising the violation i
of this law by armed assault upon the election officers or other vicious means,
although this same candidate Is crying generally for an honest election. I
simply want to assure all such that the elections of Oklahoma are amply pro- j
lected by our law and will be honestly conducted, and also that this late Con
stitutlonul amendment, enacted by an overwhelming majority of our people!
carrying majorities In fifty-eight out of seventy six counties of (he s(ate, is a
part of the law of this state that every citlien must respect as long as it is 1
the law, and that he who advises the violation of a law is as much an offender
as he who directly commits the violation.
Respectfully. c. N. HASKELL.
Can a leopard change its spots?
Can an old man change his life's habits?
It is too improbable, don't risk it.
1 he office of Oovernor of a great state is one in which the people are
more interested than in any other official of the government, and unless the
candidate for Governor has shown by his private life
That he is in sympathy with the mass of the people,
That his sense of justice to all cannot be warped by sharing in the profits
of the special interest,
If he has lived all his business life a grasping oppressor of the produc-
ing class, he certainly cannot be trusted in his old age to abandon all these
associations and habits and serve the people of uny state.
Reader, can you expect a man who aspires to the great office of Gov-
ernor to be candid and sincere in his promises to you or to fully appreciate
your rights and serve you faithfully if he will deliberately come to you wilh
false statements in his mouth, things that he knows to be utterly untrue,
as a means of deceiving vou into casting your vote for him? Certainly he is
not to be trusted, and the Tribune undertakes to show that Joseph McNeal
In practically every statement he publishes and in every speech he makes
knowingly and deliberately seeks to deceive the public by statements utterly
false and which he knows to be false.
We present here a photograph of the last page of the pamphlet which
Mr McNeill dia.rlbu.es over (he s(a(e as his campaign document and repre-
J. J. McALESTlJi'
Secretary of State
BEN. K. HARRISON
R. H. WILSON
Commissioner of Charities
Commissioner of Labor
CHARLES L. DOUGHERTY
GEORGE A. HENSHAW
Pres. Board of Agriculture
G. T. BRYAN
Examiner and Inspector
C. A. TAYLOR
P. A. BALLARD
Clerk Supreme Court
W. H. L. CAMPBELL
Associate Justice Supreme Count
Justice Supreme Court
M. J. KANE
Chief Mine Inspector
District Mine Inspector
.Judge Crlm. Court of App
THOS. H. DOYLE
JAS. R. ARMSTRONG
HENRY M. FURMAN
n. e. mcneill
elmer l. fulton
JAS. S. DAVENPORT
CHAS. D. CARTER
Here it is. read it carefully.
of Maintaining the Principal Exec-
utive Departments of Several States
offline that made him exofliclo
a member of the state board.
Attorney General .
A in! It ir ...
Supi. of Public Instruction
Secretary of State
Insurance CkpniaioiMr ....
Jline Inspector ___
Examiner and In.-peotor
Board of Agriculture
This does not in
than one hundred nor more tliun one thousand dol
Hence I, 1, plain tha. (he Oklahoma law Is as liberal with the mlnorltv T ~m0re thre" '
party a. (he most liberal Republican state and a good deal more lil.cr,! ,h„u if.v Session 'l.. - umrteen. Article seven, page three hundred
most of the Republican states which give the Democrats no representation For ef . to -. ,
whatever on the state board ' ecute a correct certificate or nomination for election or
Oklahoma Statute, pages fony-nlne and tlfty'. Scion («,, provided Jr "" t'toi!^l™ee,-Tth" T 'T "" T'd Ti?f^"" TT i'** **''
vr?-" ^ .
the Cons,I,u,ion that should govern this great slafe m or ^single f Vn n°' nor more than live hun '<> the State Banking
it;£r >, * ^ r "srrr, -thc "oumy Jau no, ,h"",en
r r TI*™ "" ,MWnl by «" Co ~ hundred lift, two. Session Law,.
«can Fedc"" officeholders^ who'were g^n i^/power't ^ Ih^fo^t, procure,'" in 'the" l^nceW T r'9h' '° Wh°
of million of people In the Indian Territory. They not only had power to entitled to vote
name the ,everal subordinate officers and completely control .he conduct of >ear. In the penit
■! "' they aU" were K|v,'n 'he extraordinary pow
enty-one. Article seven, page three •
Indian Territorv into flf.v h... a i . "7" "° subdivide, hundred nf(y-seven. Session Laws).
u rrttory into nrt> five delegate districts just to suit their own nWs incn(l,.,p . ... ..
ure. That board named one commissioner to conduct JhTutoi-' "„.JnIpect°r <" «'«"on, adding to the regi.tr,,ion li.t any per.on, under I
include the large amounts expended out of the gtiar-
Board in which was included
♦ 1.937 illegally paid to Lieut. Gov. Bellffmy, and a « .800 attorney fee
to W. A. Ledbetter attorney for the Standard Oil Company and ph- ate
attorney for Governor Haskell in Town Lot Casts - fhe H^lrd! „ i ■
s a felony -penalty not less than one nor more than thre. refusing in olK ,, ^ macmn#
entiary (See Section twenty-four. Article seven, page three i e- w even the State Lxamioer access to these books.
.Vow. reader, let us see what the truih Is as to (hese various statement
registration certificate for a person not
Strong Ticket Put Out By Democrat^
in New York State.
Rochester, Oct. 1.—A atate conven-
tion that will go into political history
u8 one < ' the most remarkable in the
history of the Democratic party closed
last night by nominating John A. l>ix,
chairman of the party s atate commit-
tee and a wealthy Washington county
business man, to run 011 a ' progres-
sive" platform of the widest type.
Regarding the platform there was
from the first little or 110 division of
opinion, liut the candidate was not
chosen until Charles F. Murphy, lead-
er of Tammany Hall, who by virtue of
his 2l'A delegates waa in a position to
control the convention, had canvassed
the merits of no less than fourteen
said I would give them an up-state
candidate and I've done it," was Mr.
Murphy's comment on the nomination.
Mainly on account of his oiiice as
state chairman, but tor personal reas-
ons also. Mr. Dix stood out against the
wishes of the leaders until alter the
time set tonight for the concluding ses-
sion of the convention. When he had
once accepted the rest ol the ticket
took only two hours to arrange.
After Murphy had decided on Mr.
Dix for governor, and the convention
was waiting for word, a committee
consisting of National Chairman Nor-
. man E. Mack ana John H. McCooey,
, the Brooklyn leader, leu the room and
went to Mr. Dix s suite. There they
1 told the chairman that the leaders
i held to their opinion that he
should run. Then Mr. Dix capitulated.
\\ ithin five minutes the committee 011
i persuasion returned to the conference
j and reported his decision. Soon after
j Dix himself came out of his room.
, "Yes, you may shake my hand," he
j said smilingly to those who congratu-
lated him. "Rut," he added, "1 don't
Know whether you congratulate ine or
i "He has shown himself a big man,"
I was the comment of Edward M. Shep
, aid. Mr. Shepard was the iirst to aban
! don his own candidacy 111 lavor of Mr.
! Dix. Mr. Dix had made it a condition
1 ';ip acceptance that all the other
candidates should promise him their
support. From how many he received
1 ins pledge could not be ascertained.
The delegates, 400, waited in con-
vention hall two hours uncertain wiiat
| candidates they would be asked to
, name So numerous were aspirants
1 or places on the ticket that not one
ventured more than a prediction of
w ho would be selected until the lead-
! ers concluded their deliberations lu
'he rooms of Mr. Murphy and came to
1 he hail. The convention proceodli.Ra
that followed were marked
smoothness and rapidliy which Demo-
crats say indicated
i their organiiation.
The New York convention
trict and he made ,11 the subordlnale appolnlments. Has anybody ever I the record of reoi. r..,nn ' I I , -WtBIBB omce in "lahoma ,-osts nfty
jr„r, - -• ^r:zzzr*,hrcehundred^^ -—-■ -3
la Oklahoma Territory for the „me election the board waa composed I hundred '(Tnv'aTveT"'s(-7Blo,<,^xTT''°U Artlc,e 8even' pagP ,hree . The '•■Sl.lature make, appropriations for each year's expense, and while : '"Klon^oumy" J'"'n
of the Territorial Governor, the Chief Justice of the Territorial coTt am t7«lnl ^ i,^ ' „ „ , i 'hC aMroI>ria,ion i8 "er entirely expended during (he year car *>r lieutenant
the Secretary of Oklahoma Territory every one of them Rcmihll -an ti, spector, lu .ides of the Hist class who fail to correctly copy tainly not one dollar more than the appropriation can be cvnemle.l I" Conwav Clint
also laid out the dl.tr.cta from which de ,^" .Irlo beTn ed nd^7 o,T^T °°P> ,h<' I,""S "l<,c,l°n da> ->"> Tur <" >he legislative Tnln |^^onway. , coun.y.
a well known fact that they we„ extremely^m3- --' I ° ™' 1-meanor-penalty not less than Ave nor more than twenty-flv. dol tef —-
dred nine which make, apprcprlatlon. for the flMaf yeari^InetMn'hund^'! enrtj. K^"'oU°ntJ.'at"~Kd*'rd
''lev,'n "nd ""serve the total amount of the appro"
Salaries of the Oovernor. hi, Privale Secre(ary, Executive Clerk and Sten
districts and (ha. In bo.h TerrKorle. (he power, of tiVtwXa^m^ ^n"Ses.i(on'L^"0n ,Wem>""X' S"Vt'n' bUnd"'d
, h Th7 r.ou,er for ^
outrageously gerrymandered and Democratic portions of the Tsrrltorie, ere Oklahoma" election'law i°' ^ 'V """ "'".I'V refWred t0 wt" s0'' ,h"' the ographer. total nine ihousand. two hundred dolla
deprived of Just representation; In many instances two or three „„„„ >t .,on aIld ,* tnTia Lenfi77 . P P*na"iM ,or "s rlol« Postage, telephone and telegraph, thirty ,ix hundred dollars
many voters were placed In a Democratic district as were placed^ a Keput Now Ider wb.i do "T', k , Stationery and oflice supplies, express and freight, iwo (housan
Ucan dls(ric(, and. recently, the same thing ha, been practiced on he pell ■ ng .'hat 'a man -ouM , . . par.Uan critic who has been yell Traveling expenses, Ave hundred dollars
of New Mexico aud Artiona Territories , everything from the entire election to a mutilated
U.t the voter compare all (hese f.cu above .tated with the present Crl " d0,,'r ""e7
Total, fifteen thousand, three hundred dollars.
•taction law of Oklahoma State, which give, the minority paHy'^present.' lawTourseH 0"' """" '° thM 'ellow^he h" "ed ,0 " " ! *h,ch ma> b" ^'pr«prlaHorr'.lx\h™,.!in,r
X^rr;:ro^vrneV^,^p^ !l(.xr:—andru,h,a ,:verv ^
" Oklahoma Democracy now Is wlth ,he mloT pan - ° ^l '"V? 77° ""U" ,0"" WO°Wf h Vt' ^ . ,
government n> in, poop.o is to ha e our electlous as absolutely free from expense of tbe Covetnor's oflice as Indicated hi in*
& SUBORDINATE BOARDS i V T *"k """T 5? C"" bt>' my obsirvatlon lhl- 'he 'he records of the Slate Auditor's office will show that Van III I It, of M,'" '
doing below the state election board we find next a county board of three \v« hlv« ! aV"aSe SU,,e in this ros^'' • eliu« "Pcnse api roprla.ion waa used and out hl .
member. In each county. In every instance .he Republi.ans have a number, ,eard charges of crl lTed ' ^ " precinc'8 in OWahom" We havr 1 ria,lon8 sum « « • practically three thousand „,
- —"• : xsrsr z\-"" - - - ■
'•'or atate ireasurer-John J. Kennc
dy. Krle county.
attorney general—Thomas J.
1 armody, Yates county
|''or stale engineer and surveyor-
John A llnnsBl, New York.
associate judge of (he court of
'ipp, uls Frederick K. Collin. Che-
H Im IIhi ,,r candidates, prepared af
• " «lii> mi ultnoNi continued confer-
Ul 'I'rough shortly after mld«
hl '1,11 onli two halts In its q«lek
1 1 " 1 l,lM U|,M prMWDtSUOD
• till ••iiiiiim of (■ougresaman William
inly rival candidate for
received 16 of
vole* of din convention and
sol I ho rest.
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Haskell, Charles N. New-State Tribune (Oklahoma City, Okla.), Vol. 16, No. 50, Ed. 1 Thursday, October 13, 1910, newspaper, October 13, 1910; Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. (gateway.okhistory.org/ark:/67531/metadc97541/m1/4/: accessed January 16, 2018), The Gateway to Oklahoma History, gateway.okhistory.org; crediting Oklahoma Historical Society.