Oklahoma Farmer (Guthrie, Okla.), Vol. 13, No. 49, Ed. 1 Wednesday, April 5, 1905 Page: 3 of 16
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OKLAHOMA FARMER, WEDNESDAY, APRIL 5, 1905.
INgBlBlBS ADDRESSED TO THE FARMER WILL BE ANSWERED
IN THIS DEPARTMENT.
In BDite of all the precautions one
can take, mice sometimes do great
damage during the winter by girdling
young fruit trees. They prefer young
apples, but when very hungry will at-
tack almost anything. Of course these
attacks are less likely to be severe
when protection is given. But under
any circumstances the fruit grower is
liable to find himself with girdled
trees which need his attention. It is
generally considered that a tree com-
pletely girdled is lost. This almost
always proves true unless bridge graft-
ing is practiced. Such remedies as
are generally recommended—the use
of paint, grafting wax, etc., will not
save a tree which is really girdled.
Bridge grafting consists of bridg-
ing over the gap between the bark
above the girdle and below it. The
circulation of digested food material
from the leaves and upward branches
downward takes place chieily in the
cambium or green bark, and it is the
interruption of this part of the tree's
circulation which ultimately causes its
The best way to make this bridge
of live bark is by using small or me-
dium sized scions. The scions are
laken from any convenient tree if
the girdled tree is an apple, naturally
the scion must be an apple scion, but
it makes no difference what kind ct
an apple tree it is taken from. The
scions should be clean, straight shoots
one year's growth, and should be cut
two or three inches longer than the
extreme width of the girdled portion.
It the scions have been cut in the
early lall or winter for ordinary work
of top grafting, they will answer tin-
pui pose admirably. If such scions
have been properly kept in cold stor-
age and are therefore quite dormaut,
they are just what is desired. In case
these are not available, it is necessary
to take young shoots front Hie stand-
ing apple trees, and in this case the
scion must be cut early in the spring
before any circulation of sap has begun.
It is desirable, in fact, that the
grafting itself should he tiono :*arly.
It can sometimes be successtMy per-
formed even after the buds begin to
swell on the trees, especially if good,
dormant scions are used, but the best
time is before any circulation of sap
begins in the tree.
In the operation of bridge grafting
the edges of the wood are cut cltan
with a sharp grafting knife. The
scions are cut two to two and one-half
inches longer than the distance be-
tween the upper bank and the lower
bark. Each scion is sharpened to a
sharp wedge at both ends. These
wedge shaped ends are then inserted
under the bark above and below the
wound. A thin, flat, narrow chisel is
a very useful tool in making this inser-
tion of the scion. From four to eight
scions are used on each tree forming
a more or less complete circle around
the trunk. Very often a few of these
scions fail to grow, but if only one or
two succeed in living the tree v/ill be
The wound should be heavily wax-
ed, especially at the ends of the sci-
ons after the graft has been made. It
is also useful to cover the whole up
PEACH. TREES, No. 1 at 3 cts, me-
dium size at 2 1-4 cts., and No. 2 at
1 1-2 cents each. Trees kept dormant
until after May 15th. Circulars free.
R. S. Johnston, Box — Stookley, Del.
SERY STOCK AT
We have a heavy surplus of all kinds of cholc#
nursery stock to offer for spring. Send for our
•' WHOLESALE PRICES.'' We will save you
money. We guarantee every order.
hart:pioneer nurseries, .
Box 27. Fort Scott, Kans
The following questions come from
an Iowa man:
"1. Will an. orchard of about one
hundred of fifty trees do well if lo-
cated on the north side of a clay hi I!
containing some gravel? 2. Will it do
to plant peach trees between the rows
ot apples 3. Will it pay to plant a
hedge along the wagon road on the
west and the railroad on the north for
a windbreak? 4. if so what, trees
would be good for a hedge and make
good posts when they are grown 5.
Would it be better to buy trees at the
local nursery or get them from other
•states at one-third the price?
Wesley Greene, secretary of the
Iowa Horticultural Society answers
these questions as follows:
1. Yes, the location mentioned would
be a desirable one for an orchard, un-
less the gravel was so plentiful that
the soil would not retain sufficient
moisture during a dry season to supply
the evaporation from the trees; other-
wise, the presence of gravel in the
clay soil would not be objectionable.
2. I would not advise planting peach,
trees between the rows of apple trees.
I would prefer to have the peach trees
together, and not separated by apple
trees. It is easier to ./ re for the trees
•nd gather the fruit when they are
close together instead of being scatter-
ed through the orchard. However, if
you wish to follow the plan of some
orchardists in planting every other
tree in the row with the intention of
removing them when the trees need
more room it is better to select apple
trees that are short lived and that will
come into bearing' while young, and
remove these when the trees that are
to remain need more room, although t
doubt if the methods is one that will
work well in practice.
3. I favor planting a windbreak on
the west side of the orchard. The rows
should extend far enough south and
north of the orchard to protect it from
the southwest and northwest winds, as
these are the most destructive to the
orchard, either from the strength of
the storm breaking the trees or blow-
ing off the fruit, or from the dry wind
causing rapid evaporation from the fo-
liage during a drouth. As to the rows
along the north side of the orchard,
it would depend on the height of the
hill. If the row of trees was planted
in a depression and the hill was of
any considerable height they would
give very little protection from the
4. As to the varieties to plant for
a windbreak, I would prefer Austrian
pine. These trees would not supply
material for pofcts or lumber, but would
make an excellent windbreak. If you
want to utilize the trees for posts,
plant hardy catalpa. I would suggest-
that you plant the first two rows on
the west with Austrian pine and then
east of thes as many rows of catalpa
o7>e3 Newkirk Nursery
by tying a piece of old sacking loose-
lly over the outside.
The trees treated in this way are
quite apt to sprout .from the roots or
from below the girdle. Such sprouts
should be removed as soon as they
start. If they are allowed to grow un-
hindered for two or three years they
will spoil the tree.
Bridge grafting is less difficult: than
one who has not tried it would sup-
pose. After the materials have been
procured it is the work of ten to twenty
minutes to each tree. If tress are two
to three years old they ought to be
worth $1 to $5 each, so that fifteen
or twenty minutes spent in saving such
a tree is very profitably employed. Wo
bridge grafted several apple trees that
were girdled by mice at the Massa-
chusetts agricultural college last win-
ter, and the work was successful in
nearly every case.—Prof. F. A.
Wamph, in Massachusetts Agri :ultur-
Offers a fine assortment of fruit trees, shade and orna-
mentals, at the lowest prices for which good stock
can be sold. A large stock of No. i 3-year old apple.
Also soft Maple by the car load.
Pric« list lent on application. Address
A. L. MATHIS,
as would make a grove the size de-
5. Buy the trees from the local nur-
sery if you can. get the varieties you
want there. Trees grown near you
larni that have been propagated from
stock raised there are better suited
to the locality than those brought
from a distance. The first cost of the
tree is not so material to the success
of the orchard as good healthy stock
adapted to the locality.
Easy to Grow Grapes.
Any soil that will produce corn
will produce grapes, though the best
soils contain more or less clay. If jt
becomes too compact it can be loos-
ened with coal ashes, which is a good
fertilizer. The soil should be well
drained. A vineyard does best with
a southeastern exposure. Before plant-
ing, the soil should be well plowed or
spaded, and if naturally poor it should
be enriched with well rotted manure,
bone-dust or ashes. Fertilizers con-
taining the greatest amount of phos-
phate are best. For general vineyard
planting, one year old plants from
cuttings are usually preferred by ex-
perienced vineyardists, though some
prefer two year old.
Grai>es should be planted eight feet
apart. Dig the holes about two feet
wide and eighteen inches deep, loosen-
ing the earth thoroughly in the bottom,
throwing in two or three inches of
surtace soil. Spread the roots in the
bottom of the hole in every direction
taking care not to let them cross each
other. Cover with fine surface soil two
or three inches deep, pressing it thor-
oughly with the foot; this firming the
soil is very essential to success ,and
should be carefully done, after which
fill the hole up to the new wood. Cul-
tivate through the summer, allowing
no weeds to grow, and hoe lightly
around the vines, so as not to disturb
the roots. It is not a good idea to grow
vegetables between the rows.
The first fall after planting cut the
cane back to two or three eyes only ;
this gives the roots the start of the
vine, and they are thus enabled to
sustain a good crop. The next spring
when hoeing around the vines rub off
all the shoots but two, leaving the
strongest for next year's fruit. Culti-
vation the second summer should be
the same as the first. As the growth
progresses the canes may be trained
along the rows on the ground. In the
tall, after the leaves are fallen, prune
the vines and plow between the rows.
J. T. SANDEFUR.
If one is willing to fertilize the soil
in his orchard he would be willing to
apply such fertilizers at the proper
time. While the usual spring fertil-
izing of trees with commercial fertil-
izers has no objection, the same cannot
be said of the use of stable manure
under some conditions, which is th(3
fertilizer generally at the command of
the farmer. It is generally understood
that severe pruning iu the spring caus-
es good wood growth of the tree and
heavy fertilizing with stable manure in
High Grade Hursery Stock
Fine Two-Year-Old Apple Trees
Freight paid to your station
$5.00 to $6.00 per 100
Write for list of varieties
the beginning of the growing season
has a like effect. If the orchard is
not growing rapidly enough by all
means fertilize in the sipring so as to
get the necessary wood growth, but it
the etres are all right in this respect
but are not fruiting properly, it is
evident they are making wood growth
at the expense of fruit buds. Obvious-
ly the remedy is to fertilize alter the
growing season for the wood is practic-
ally over which would be after mid-
summer. Fall manuring, in any con-
siderable quantity, is not advisable lor
it excites a growth of wood which is
not desirable at a time when the trees
are preparing to rest.
Early Spring in the Orchard.
Trees do not like wet feet any better
tLan we do.
A north slope may lie bad for to-
mato fruits, but it is not a bad loca-
tion tor tree fruits.
Blighted branches on our pear trees?
We must cut out such parts at once,
and we should be sure to cut below
the diseased wood.
in many orchards the trees are plant-
ed too close together; you get more
trees to the acre, but you lose in the
quantity and quality of fruit.
If there are any "black knots" on
our plum or cherry trees we should
cut them out at once.
The men who did not spray their
apple crops the past season are now
wondering which are the smarter^-
they or Mrs. Codling Moth.
Why buy fruit trees just because the
catalogues show up line pictures of
them? Let us try to find out just
what kinds are best suited to our lo-
cality and which sell best 011 our mar-
ket. Then set out all we need of
those few kinds. ;
An authority says a ton of apples
takes sixty cents' worth of fertility.
Apples ought to be a very profitable
crop at that rate, when compared
with the fact that a ton of hay which
sells for, say $10, removes about $4
worth of fertility from the soil.
mn Jil"' D"ri"ery Krnwn and hardy
_,A" tor P<irpo.ei
' fliSt Pr,C<"' .i° h r<f 'n lou, ali
"7. II to 110 p«r 100.
i ( ataloffue and bargain sheet free.
0. Hill, EiirgtMn Spiclillit, Oundn, iii.
TREES ! TREE4!
Home Grown, Shade, Ornamental and Fruit Trees.
LUKE & SAVAGE, Props.
416 W. Main
OKLAHOMA CITY. OKLA.
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Greer, Frank H. Oklahoma Farmer (Guthrie, Okla.), Vol. 13, No. 49, Ed. 1 Wednesday, April 5, 1905, newspaper, April 5, 1905; Guthrie, Oklahoma. (https://gateway.okhistory.org/ark:/67531/metadc88045/m1/3/: accessed January 29, 2020), The Gateway to Oklahoma History, https://gateway.okhistory.org; crediting Oklahoma Historical Society.