The Indian Chieftain. (Vinita, Indian Terr.), Vol. 19, No. 32, Ed. 1, Thursday, April 4, 1901 Page: 3 of 8
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Indian CUM tain.
r V'i n'iim i...
Vinita IndTer April 4 1(101.
Corn and buy tit iiitli-iiilnu'.
Simps Mellon of Or.io Is In luwn.
G. Ml ll.ihoii lusloin xli'k font
couple Of WICK-".
Duller unci gju wan I til itt ll.ilcic
Mr. n ml Mr J. Nab ltt-'o arc the
troud patents of .tbiby ylrl.
The fruit i r ip Is yul cifo notwith-
standing too exceedingly ujukwitrl
A. 13. Freeman canio In fwin till
farm near Cilulo Monday and spent
tbo day here.
Earl Caldwell) a popular commercial
man representing a largo Chicago
Arm Is In town.
P. II. Wasson of Wasson poll
ofllec was In lowu today atlomllnt; to
somo legal matters.
A. M. Urock U Improving tils liuino
jard with a new fence and Is sowing
bluo grass and planting trees.
Kov. W. T. King Is boxing bU books
for shipment lo Idaho whero be has
accepted the pastorate of a church.
Wm. II. Hush of Chicago proslilont
Ot Dush & Gcrls' Piano Co dlod a
few days since at his homo aged 73
Thorlnt bright day every person
should takou trco or two lo the pjrk
where a gardener will receive and
Mr Foreman of 1'ryor Crick who
Is sullcrlug fiom lartlnl pjralyblf
was hero Wednesday lo be examined
by ibo pension board.
Sumo of our leiritory exchanges can
now print the news again us their
space has been occupied for Fiimo
wicks with municipal politics.
iVcause of the bad wcatl.ur tbo
work of laving a foundation for the
now Frjzco llulllngton building was
not commenced Monday us expected.
James S. Davenpoit went to Fort
Gibson this morning to bo In attend
ancouron tho Dawes Commission In
his cjpacity as attorney for the na-
tion. The c'ostum at Mi:sko.'cc and
South McAlcMor rcsuliel In the se-
lection of the candidates of ihoclll-
zjos' ticket. In the 'ortucr town Pat-
rick J. Ilyrne was o'eHed mayor and
at South Me A loiter the people elected
J. C. Sialoup their chief cxcutlvc.
Tho Dawes Commission umved In
Wagoner Monday loo late to prepare
thel' tents and get ready for enroll-
ment. Tho actual work will not com-
mence until Wcdr.cdiy. It Is report-
ed that Wagoner Is crowdoi with
Frccdmcn waiting an opportunity to
From evidences It appears that
Hoollo Dell rcprosonts lite sinking
ship and that the rats r.o matter tiow
they used the knife Tuesday upon his
ordersj will kooii desert him The
Secretary of life Interior and the
Dawes Committee have toi much dig-
nity to permit him lo appear before
13.1. Kastwood wai extmliiod jos-
tcrday before Judge DotiCarlus on n
charge of burglar mid was held lo
answer before the gniml jury with
ball tlxod ut 1800. Kuuwood bio.ee
into n blacksmith shop at Chelsea and
stole some sioal plates that were found
hidden between two bed-ticks. 1'adon
Tolbort made thoarrotl.
Ono vote was cast Tuesday for
Sweet Moments for ciiyscmcngcraml
ash barrel Intpcc'or and therit being
no opposition he was duly declared
elected. Ho will decline to serve
however but Rus stands ready at any
lluio to tl c tho ncrcary hiiiul In case
he wuuld accept the position and hon-
or. Croat Inleicit Is being icitercd In
the contest fi r tho prcttlost woman
in Vlnlta. lldosn't maltur whether
she Is slug'o or mnirivd. No yolo
counted unlets mi u Cnlclluiu coupon
Thohollut box will be openc t and the
votes counted Friday night iho re-
sult being published In SulurlnyV
Dawes Commission Dates.
The Dawos commission has llxed
the following dates and places for the
enrollment of Chcrokco Frccdmcn:
PortGlhsoii April 1 to 30 Inclus-lvo
Vlnlta May 0 to 25 1001.
Nowata May 20 to June 20 1001.
Air. Ollstrap Is (hateful.
Mr. I. h. Gilstrnp tho citizen's can-
didato for marshal desires through
the Chieftain to thank his many
friends for their support and labor
election day. He fcols highly gratl-
Hod becauo ot tho number of votes ho
received and Is anxious to prove Ills
gratitude to Ills friends whenovor op-
A Chloroforming Thief.
Mrs. Kllza Coney who llvpi north of
tho Sacred Heart Institute uwukc
ono morning hut wcolc at un hour
much lutor than usual. tilio sullcrod
all the had olloats usual after having
Inhaled chloroform. Mrs Coney then
discovered that some thief had en-
tered hor hoti o during the night and
uflcrchuroforiiilug her nnsackol tbo
houo. A mong nthor things $ 10.60 In
coin were st' Ion.
AT FORT GIBSON
The Vote For Mayor in That Thrifty
Town Resulted in a Tio.
Tho voting at Fort Gibson Tues-
day resulted In lie. M. V. Ilcngo
and V. II. Mustcrj each received 08
Tom F. Cunningham made a splen-
did raco for recorder rccoivlngOl votes
Against 4 i for Ids opponent M. I. L.
John Herd had no opposition for
town commissioner rorolvlng 23 voles.
For the council II. U. Meigs O II.
Shaffer lid 1' Rgi and Juko Young
weroelcctod with a tlo betuoon F. II
Nash and Tom Collins
THE NAME VINITA
The Romantic Dorlvatlon
tho Euphonious Sound-
MISS VINIMIE REAM
Thtt Artist ami SeulptrecB wax
Made tho God-Mother of tut
Town Mrs. Mabel V. Ander-
son by Request Writes Inter-
estingly of ThalTnlented Lady
Vinita has not only cause for
congratulation upon a lair pros-
pect of ber ting the metropolis of
the India Territory but she has
more than one reason for being
proud of tho name it bears.
First becauso it is universally
concodod to bo tho prettiest and
most euphonious name of any city
in the Indian Territory.
And secondly on account of its
unusually romantic derivation.
While not in reality an Indian
name a many naturally suppoBO
yet tho Indians havo reason to bo
proud of the fact that the town
was christened by a Cherokee
and one of Hie most distinguished
of his race tho gifted Cornelius
Doudlnot. Not as a lawyer an
orator a statesman or a man of
advanced ideas lias 'he name of
Col. Doudlnot endeared itself to
his people but ho possessed in a
marked degree that admirable
quality of loving his follow men
and was by them beloved.
His talent for retined and pleas-
ant entertainment was of an unus-
ual order. He was the fascinating
exponent of interesting conversa-
tion sentiment and song. Tho
beauty and poetry of his naturo
found its happiest expression in
his songs. These wero his fiienda
and those who were enraptured by
them wero among the most hon-
ored in the laud. Many eminent
people were numbered among his
Few indeed of his race ever
stood bo high socially as he nor
received so profusely tho attention
usually bestowed upon genius.
On account of his advanced
ideas upon allotment and other
matters Col. Boudinot was for a
long period of time exiled from
his native country and ho made
the city of Washington his homo
fur many years. Twaa here bo
met tbo famous Vinnio Ream and
the mutual admiration and friend-
ship between the two is familiar
to all who knew him.
It is - fact well known to ivory
cilizHii of this country that the
town of Vinita was originally
called Downingvillo in honor of
Lewis Downing the distinguished
chief and as a matter of looal his-
tory equally worthy of notp tho
name was afterwards changed at
the instigation of Col. Boudinot
to ''Vinita" in honor ol hid first
love "Vinnle It-am" tho fam-ius
In the field uf art America
furnishes no greater name perhaps
certainly not among women than
that of Vinnio Ream Hoxie who
enjoyed the distinction of b-ing
the first woman who ever received
an order from the Uniied States
government for a statue.
During (ho civil war she woe
employed for a time in the post ol-
lice department in Wa-liingtou
D. C but subsequently studied
art and soon devoted her whole at-
tention to sculpture. Her work in
this line was so successful that
alio mado busts of Gen. Grant
Sherman Albert Pike Sheredy
Johnson and Thadeus Stevens
besides producing "The Indian
Girl" a full length figuro in
bronze the Marble "Mariatn"
and o'.hers of note. Her most im-
portant execution at this time was
the 6talue of Lincoln ordered by
the government and pluced in the
oapitol at Washington.
Vinnle Ream spent several
years abroad and perhaps her
most widly known statue is that of
Admiral Farrogut which was cast
in bronze from metal obtained
from the flag ship "Harlford"
and placed in Farragut square
Washington D. O.
She was married in May 1878
to Capt. Richard L. Hoxie of the
U S. corpB ot engineers.
Like the clasBia poet of Greece
many states and cities have
olaimed tho honor as tbo place of
her birth. That honor however
must bo bestowed upon Madison
Midi. whoio elm firbt saw the
light or day Sept 23 1840.
Though the placo of her birth has
been so far disputed yet it Is a
fact that hor piuenlH resided in
Fort Smith Arkansas during her
early youth and girlhood.
Whllo residing in Fort Smith
alio was at one time a Sunday
school pupil of Miss Abblo Wash-
bourne Bister ol the talented Ed-
ward Paeon Washbourne of "Ar-
kansas Traveler" fame
In viow of tho association with
hor narao tho citizens of this city
shouM feel a particular intorest in
tho llfo and character of Vinnio
Ream and Col. Boudinot. Let VI-
nita do oredit to tho beauty of her
namo by rising an a fair nlinu-
ment to perpetuate in memory the
friendship of two gifted spirits
the ono who expressed tho melo-
dy of his foul throtigh song nml
tlm olhir whu Biill speaks lo the
world ilnougli tho client mt-dium
nl u nrblo and bronzn. 1.V. A.
rioro About the Treaty.
Blltor of the Chieftain:
Being nn ex-momber of the Na-
tional Council will havo a few
words to say in regard to tho
troaly between Bu(HngtonBell and
the Dawes commission.
In tho first placo tho Cherokco
commission was illegal so that
being the cobo tho whole transac-
tion is illegal. Articlo G page
20 section 3 constitution of the
Cherokco nation reads in this
light when tho national council
shall determino tho expediency of
appointing delegates or other pub-
lic agents for the purpose of trans-
acting business with tbo govern-
ment of tho United States the
principal chiol shall recommend
and by the advice and consent ol
the national committee appoint
and commission such dolegates and
public agents accordingly on all
matters of interest touching the
rights of tho citizens of this na-
tion which may requite the atten-
tion of the United States govern-
ment. We all know this law was not
complied with. Tho chief selected
the commission himself. I see
now from letters printed in the
papers that the commission that
ho selected is opposed to the
treaty and I think they am
right in opposing it. I think it is
ono of tho most daylight robberies
that ever was perpetrated on us
people. Wo mado a treaty with
the United States government Dec.
19 1890 an agreement concluded
between David H. Jerome Alfred
M. Wilson and Warren G. Sayre
duly appointed commissioners on
the part of the United States and
E. O. Boudinot JoBeph 0. Scales
George Downing Roach Young
Thomas Smith Wm. Triplett and
Joseph Smallwood on tho part of
tho Cherokee nation and sold
them our land out west better
known as the strip They agreed
to put out tho intruders settle up
with us and pay ua what was due.
Did they do it? No. They got
our land and left the intruders
liere and they are hero yet watch-
ing thinking there will bo a chance
to rob theBo people out of their
homes yet. I call them a bad
class ot people. We sent Ribl F.
Wyly to Washington to find out
what was duo the nation. He re-
ported quite a sum Have tbey
paid it? Answer. No. They just
simply lied to get that land and
now are after the balance of our
1 notice there are parties that
have been lying around Washing-
tun trying to gt their fingers in
that boodle thai s due the Cheto-
kto nation from the government.
I ulso notice letters written from
Washington by some of our lob-
byists who have bsen out there
such men ns Rob't Owen and Rich-
urd Adams. Richard says the
treaty is all right; the mineral
clause don't amount to anything.
Poor deluded fool. Does he think
he can stuff thai down the people
who have to vote on that igree-
mout? It. might bo a flower in
Richard's cap if the treaty would
go and he could gel nil that land
set aside that 1b mentioned
in the treaty to pay his dead an-
cestors something he has been
working ut quite a while which is
a downright robbery. No Dick
we can't put any confidence in
what you say about the treaty if
we donato you that amount and
all our government buildings to
the United States and thousands
of acres for towntites and 1G0
acres to Willie Halsell college at
Vinita and why it was the Bap.
list Mission at Tahlequah only
got four ncres7 I don't see how
that was for Ben was thero with
Hoolie and a Baptist to boot. I
think if 1 had been Ben 1 should
have said to Hoolie four acres is
enough for either ono of the places
for we'll all be on the Bame footing
when we pasB over tho river of
Jordun and that is not near all
of the donations yet. Hero comes
Curtis and his syndicate to dig
right under us. What is left?
Nothing but the hide. 1b that all?
No! The M. K. A T. railroad
has got to have a part of the hide.
We will quoto tht not that was
paBscd in congress in 1803 By
the act of congress approved
Marcli 3 1803 there were granted
to the Union Pacific Southern
branch through the Btato of Kan-
Baa 1620000 acres of land to
Junction City Kansas and the
southern boundary of Kansas and
to Fort Smith when the Indian
title 1b extinguished are the laud
grant termini. The records of the
general land ofllce showB that lo
June 30th 1876 there had boenlllue. Lara 3 o package Uvcccnw. aw
patented lo the company 913015
10 acres of land in tho stale of
Kansas Tho records of the gen-
eral land ofilco also show that
5700 acres of railroad indnmnlly
lands located in Kansas have
been restored to the publlo do-
main. The company makes tut
report of the operation of its land
department but under llite head
"Pom's Manual of Rdilroads"
1895 page 530 ooutaifm the fol-
lowing: "Under acts of congress the
company received largo land
grants both in the stalo nl Kwieiis
and in the Indian Tmitory. Those
in the latter claim to amount to
3110400 acres subject to treaty
stipulations and lo tho extinguish-
ment of the Indian title. Tho
lands rocolved from tbo slato of
Kansas havo all boon sold. No
lands in tho Indian Territory
havo yot been reclved. On
March 3rd 1893 a hill wan passed
in the national cong'ress providing
for the appointment of a commis-
sion to investigate and roport to
the government as to tho expo
diency of oponlng up for settle
ment territory tributary to tho
Missouri Kansas & Texas rail-
way." Now voter theso aro facts. The
Dawes commission never has told
the people that their mission hero
is in tho interest ot the
railroad company. That is o
fact unlesB the secretary's re-
ports are untrue. Some will Bay
thai is all settled in the treaty. It
is a sad mistake. The railroad
companies have nover had any
show to enforce that law and
wont have until the Indian title is
extinguished. Section 51 of tbo
treaty reade; All lands to which
at the dale of the ratification of
this agreement any railroad com-
pany may under any treaty or act
of congress have a vested right for
right-of-way depot station ground
water stations stock yards or sim
ilar uses connected with the main-
tenance and operations of tho rail-
road. The company may claim
that they want that land for simi-
lar us is lo maintain their road.
Voters study these questions.
Don't let these fakes mislead you.
Turn out and vote against the
treaty for tho Curtis bill or tho
devil's bill cannot make it any
worse let come what may. I
see that the government has made
us United States uitiz-ns. It
seems to mo wo bhould ol had
deeds to our land first before be
coming citizBiis of tho United
States. Now if they can gel us to
break our title then we will bo-
come nothing more than home
steaders; then we leavu the gap
dorrn for tho railroad company to
get our laud. If thero is any left
we'll get 80 acres und a lease
plastered over it if that trea'y is
ratified so I am in hopes that the
cilizeus of our country will all
stand tocethei and defeat it for
the interest of their families. I
see a letter from Judge Sprioger
saying tho treaty is good. I read
it over and over and failed to find
the good part. If ho can't do any
better than lo advise us lo commit
Buicldo wo had better hunt another
lawyer. I am a lit'.lo bit surprised
at the udgo but a man nowadays
don't know whotber to trust him.
self or not. J. W. Sharp.
OUR WATER SUPPLY.
Three Artesian Wells Are Now Flow-
ing And Two Alorc Soon Will be.
It is a disgraceful commentary
upon the moss-back members of
the city council that Vinita has
not n splendid waterworks sys-
tem. We have the best and most
healthy water in the territory 'with
three artesian wells with a ilow of
sufficient volume to lorco tho
walor through pipes Irom 75 to
100 feel above the surface.
Ono of the ilowing welU is at
the power house the other two
being on the residence property of
V. E. Halsell and J. O. Hall.
Messrs Preston S. Davis and V
II. Kornegay are jointly having a
well drilled it new being down
about GOO feet. When tho drillers
get through they will move to a
spot between the residences of
Pen Phillips and W. P. Thomp.
son theso gentlemen having con-
tracted for tbo sinking of a well
AHk Villi r emeer fur Ttnrl flrnas Hull
j&Hm H:t$ t WnT ifltf"' ft 'TIMLiBiwPr iiiISji
Vinlta's Exceptional Educa-
tional Advantages for
At Eioh of the Fivo Sohoola There
Aro Seven Hundred and Eighty
Pupils Enrolled A Graduato
From this City Can Enter Any
Vinita furnishes exceptionally
advantageous opportunities to the
youth of tho territory to gain an
education. Our publicschool is en'
tlrely supported by the city and s
free from the domination of the
Cherokee nation's board of school
At tho Willie Halsell College
anil tho Sacred Heart Institute tho
higher branches of learning are
taught Especially is this bo at
tlis Institute whero the four
toschcrs compel a high standard
uf loaming before cradutation.
Mother Lawrence' is principal and
at present thero are 78 scholars in
Mrs. Mabel W. Anderson a
lady of recognized ability whose
reputation for literary work ex
tends far beyond tho limits of the
territory has charge of the Chero-
kee Echool and the work that' has
been accomplished is indeed grat-
ifying. The school is growlne in
interest and attendance every day.
At present there aro 31 pupils in
At the public school there are
six teachers under the superlnlen-
dency of Prof. W. S. Dugger.
There are 232 citizen echolars and
209 non-citizens. The value of
the school property is estimated at
$10000. The echool was opened
September 17 1899 and the aver-
age attendance since last Septem-
ber has been from 250 to 300
Tho Freedmen or colored school
is being ably conducted by Prof.
A E. Jackson and a lady assistant.
There nre 84 citizen pupils en-
rolled and 19 non-citizen pupils.
The Willie Halsell college is
conducted by the Methodist church
south and their curriculum em-
braces such studies as enables a
graduate to enter at once upon a
colleghto course. There are 127
scholars representing all parts of
the territory and several ol the
states. There are fivo able instruc-
tors the principal or president be-
ing Prof. Theodore F. llrewer.
A largo new
stock of Jewelry at
WILLIE AND HIS MAID
Were Urutally Denied a Llcenso by
Cupid Chandler Last Sunday.
They are n handsome couple
Willie T. Mellowey and Maid
Rolla now Mr. and Mrs. Mel-
lowey. They come from Columbia Mo.
and Miss Maid's mother favored
the attention of Willie while Papa
Holla the wealthy fnrmer would
havo nothing to do with the lad ol
oheBtnuV curls and a pretty curl
When the ycung people arrived
here Sunday they sought ltert
Chandler for a license. With the
instinct of Cupid Deri la always
willing to oblige. He opened the
ofilco and proceeded lo make out a
license. Willie answered the
questions all right. Madia how
ever blushlngly forgot what ehe
bad beeu told and answered that
eho was 1G years old although
tine popular Hurt would have
sworn to 24 and ho is a judge of
appearance in a lady.
Nothing was left under tho law
but to deny tho license. Tho lady
in tears and Villie mad they ex-
pOBtulHled. Finally asking for
advico Bert told thrm lo go lo
Wagoner and appear before the
clerk there and let the (rip tako
three yonre Hint is to let the lady
be three yenn older.
They did so got a license and
were mirried Sunday night. Thev
relumed and took apartments at
tho Green hotel and left Tuesday.
WHO DO YOU THINK
Is The Host Beautiful Lady In Vlnlta
Contest of Ueauty
Tho Daily Chieftain will pub-
lish tho appended coupon up to and
including next Friday night and
in tho weekly edition Thursday.
It is important that we chooso tho
"very pretlieet" woman in Vinila
so that this city in competition
with other towns in tho territory
will have the distinction of
naming tho lady to represent tho
territory. Tho conditions aro
viiu 9 the Mr IT liHAirrim'r. wa
Cut out this coupon write the name
of the lady you think entitled to UlU
dlttinclioti sign your mine and place in
the toxat OiwMutopulos' fruit and con
fectlotwry store at once. Your name or
vote III not be published or revealed
Every ptrson limited to one vote. The
winner In this contest will be enteral in
the St. I)ui Globe-Democrat'a World's
Fair Ueauty Contest for the selection of
the most beautiful woman in the terri
Second Class Colonist Rates.
February 20 March 6 12 10 end 20
April 2 0 10 23 and 30 1001. On the
abort; dates tho Frisco line will sell
one way tickets to Los Angclos San
DIuko San Francisco and Intermedi-
ate points at 8M 60 from Vlnlta.
It. W. Walkkk. Local Auent.
Do you know that tho Flashlight
Studio makes Rood pictures? If not
come und ilve us a trial and if you
trc not satisfied with the pn .' It
won't cost you a penny.
Country hams and spring chicxens
at Cowan's. tf
IMPORTANCE OF GRASSES.
ltnr Ihr Oriinrtinrnt uf tttrlcullur
Una HrroBiiUril TliU n-
There Is no line of work more Inti-
mately connected with the agricul-
tural itiUTMte of tlit country than In-
fiMgatlo(u) of grMMs and forng'ti
plants write Arthur Henry In Alru-
lee's. 0 roues ars to common growing ev-
erywhere In meadow and watts
placet iiimmi litlltldei and plAina oot
ering the bare places of the earth
with their myriad liotta ot individual
plants that we are apt to forget their
vast significance In th economy ol
nature and tint they constitute the
greatest of our agricultural retourcoi
and form the very foundation upon
which rctts all our ngrleuitural wealth
and protperity. According to esti-
mates of the dlrltlon of ttntittlcs the
hay crop of ISM alone amounted to
C0.0O0.COO tons valued at nearly $100-
000000 exceeding by n third tho
total value ot the wheat crop. In ad-
dition to this vast quantity of hay
vthloh would barely tuftlce to -sorry
through the year the 10000000 mlloh
cow owned by the United States
enough posturnge fodder and green
forage were supplied to feed 17000000
thcep 30000000 cnttle I4.ooo.ooo
horses and 3000000 mules. A con-
r native estimate place the totnl an-
nual value ot the gvaw and forage
crops of tlilt country at more than
Amoug the great nations of the
world ourn hat been the first to give
nfllolnl recognition to the importance
of these erope by establishing In the
department of agriculture u dltltlan
of agrostology especially devoted to
worklntr out cross nroblemt. '"
During tho pott )enr 0000 trUl
packages ot teedt from collections
made by the dliUlon have been dk
trlbutcd more than 3000 grasses hnV
been Identified fo. correspondent! and.
replies to more taan ooo inquirers tei
tlve to the methods ot culthutu.a
uses and feeding value of grasses have
Frvsh bacoti and lard ftt Ualoutim
L. P. Garrison.
Has Just Received His Third Car of
S & P FLOUR
The quality of which is well known
to the trade. Its baking and rising
qualities cannot be excelled. It is a
combination of purity strength and
flour. My stock of
Is now the largest and most complete
in Vinita' and my prices arc always
FOR THE TABLE:
The art of living WELL is in judicious marketing.
WHERE you buy is of just as much importance to
you as WHAT you buy when it comes to food.
You want to know the surroundings of the things
you eat. Notice the cleanliness of our store. Every-
thing is fresh and appetizing and we have all kinds of
dainties for the table.
Come and See Us.
All the Chickens Turkeys; Geese Eggs
and all Country Produce to be sold.
Vinait - - Iiaci. Ter.
Is th only one In Vinita mak-
thc long- Panel Photos the
new style. n.
Introduction Prices All
this week on new styles
Tf H. KORNEGAY
Attornoy at Law
and Notary Public.
OIBct In new 1UU. HUM'S VINITA. I. T
WlilprtetleelDttl lhl'nll4 SUUt Coon
Ant 9 ol Ut Indian rtrrnorr.
Quick Sure Pleasant.
AND THt .
PRINCIPAL CITIES Or
KATY CHAIR W
DINING STAT JON!
OPERATED BY THE COMMtf
SUPERIOR MEALS. o
! 1 J HI A wmuH Hei
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Marrs, D. M. The Indian Chieftain. (Vinita, Indian Terr.), Vol. 19, No. 32, Ed. 1, Thursday, April 4, 1901, newspaper, April 4, 1901; (gateway.okhistory.org/ark:/67531/metadc71692/m1/3/: accessed October 21, 2018), The Gateway to Oklahoma History, gateway.okhistory.org; crediting Oklahoma Historical Society.