The Mangum Star. (Mangum, Okla. Terr.), Vol. 17, No. 16, Ed. 1 Thursday, October 20, 1904 Page: 1 of 8
The following text was automatically extracted from the image on this page using optical character recognition software:
MANGUM, GREER COUNTY, OKLAHOMA TERRITORY, OCTOBER ,20 1904.
MURE IS HERE
when approximately 11 ^ million
bales were secured from a planting of
only 23 million acres, an out-turn of
about 16 million b^Ies would be Indi-
cated. We refer to these possible de-
ductions, not intending to endorse any
of them, but merely to show the con-
clusions to which they lead. Of course
STARTLING HEAD LINE8 IN THE 8Uch conc'ut<lons cannot be accurate
CAPITAL INTIMATE HE WlLL I ?! the cond'tlon figures cannot always
Met A Frost All Round—Billed For
Two Meetings, One Day He Failed
To Have Any—No One to
CARRY ENEMIES COUNTY. | have had the same relative meaning.
Throughout the controversy that
has been going on between the Sun-
Monitor and the Star, the Star has
been absolutely frank, open and un-
reserved in trying to give the people
the exact truth. On the other hand,
the Sun-Monitor has been absolutely
and inexcusably false In a large num-
ber of Its statements, and in many
other statements It fcas manifested
a total lack of frankness and a pur-
pose to create false impressions with-
out directly saying either wha' It
has in mind or what it intends for
its readers to falsely infer that it has
in mind. Our knowledge of county
affairs entitles us to claim some
ability in finding the meaning of news-
Mangum, O. T., Oct. 13 —The re- I P"?*. a'ticles elating to this sub-
publican campaign Is red in Greer gl?nMon HConfess th,at tha
and Roger Mills counties this week. tn wW if v,, n US gl!e8slng as
McGuire is flying through the county Lalv if tL .n^ meant by a great
holding three meetings daily. Great El w f statements it
crowds greet him at every meeting We h*ve come to the con-
and the enthusiasm among the people however, that, by theso in-
has never been equalled before. His n„?i?,n s'atements' il means to say
addresses are masters in oratory and h inton£««f°n8,f,?U|?nCe k, 6 ralnds
full of facts that are interesting to ^ andtlhonotrable readers;
people generally. His efTorts In con- " ' J e a e tl?le' to create false
gress are fully endorsed and the peo- ^ ®®'ons ,,.pon thet mlnds of those
pie know in whom to trust for a faith- * ° Ignorant, so prejudiced
ful and competent public servant. The f J' With"
people begin to understand there Is examination of what they
but one way to secure sutehood and th,e mOSt lnno"
that is vote for and elect McGuire L and meaningless language into
The above clipping will Indicate to *. ,.arKeaBa,nRt the official records
STAR readers the character of the offl®ers ^honi the Sun-Moni
campaign Bird McGuire is making—in attemted to criticize in its
the State Capital, his official organ. ,- .t ... - ^
The campaign he is making in Greer fh" ^.eh®dlt°r °f the S"n"Monlt°r is
as to the best of the STAR'S informa- , ?uth°r of these articles, he has
tlon, all over the territory, is a very simpl? &,,0yed «>en who have no to
different matter. regard for the (ruth to misinform him
The Capital says he is making three 'w®16,'8 not ,he author- Rnd he prob-
talks a day in Greer county—Intending ?b,y not> they were Probably writ-
to make its readers think it means J1 some Irresponsible reporter
"public speeches". Nothing could be who has collected his data from false
more misleading, since he has simply 8°urces of information. If the editor
met a frost all round the circle in ° ,hat £aper' or any honorable citi-
Greer except perhaps from Erick, from fen ... county, after making an
which place the STAR has not heard ln,ell|Ken'. honest and competent in-
The STAR has positive information Mitigation, will publish over his own
that on at least one day he failed to s|Knaturo a reiteration of the various
make any speech at all for the reason ' 8,atements that the Sun-Monitor has
and had a voice In all Ita meetings, i the cause we are working for,
but practically no other duties. . splendid success it should be.
During these years of 1899 and ., 80 let me urge you In conclusion,
1900, and until July, 1901, Mr C W y.a.U have®'t «ot your democratic
Edwr., „„„ „P„WI0.„ 1 sss *2-3
register of deeds, who was then popu- brate a glorious victory after Novem-
list superintendent of schools, voted ber "• Yours for Success,
that no one responded to the an-
nouncement of the appointment. At
Francis—which is supposed to be
republican stronghold no one met him
at his 10 o'clock a. m. appointment
and he waited there hoping against
hope for some one to come in the af-
ternoon and passed up his afternoon
appointment at Reed to no avail.
This Is significant as showing the
apathy toward McGuire and the
confidence even republicans reposad
in Frank Mathews.
SOME COTTON TALK.
What Different Men Think of the Sit-
uation, Ita Price and Consumption.
From the "Commercial and Finan-
cial Chronicle": This week's hap-
penings have been of an especially
made in regard to the small pox
claims, and will Rtate upon his honor
that he believes them to be true, we
will pay him, at once, one hundred
dollars in cold cash. We have not
got much money; btrt we know that
no man who has any regard for his
reputation for truthfulness will ever
make such a statement.
The Sun-Monitor started out by
merely charging that the court costs
could have been saved; but, embolden
by this falsehood. In Ita Issue of Oct.
Oin, It gives utterance to the more
palpable falsehood that the claims
themselves could have been defeated.
Thus the gall of the author of these
falsehoods grows. If the author of
that article could sell his gall In open
market he would be an exceedingly
wealthy man when he received" the
The Sun-Monitor says; "A large
proportion of the $37,000 amount of
with the other membera of the board
in allowing something over twenty
thousand dollars of these claims,
never voting against any claim that
the appointed members asked for.
When Mr. Thapker entered office
on January 1st, 1901, he was con-
fronted by the same conditions that
had confronted Mr .Mathews. In May,
1901, Chief Justice Burford came here
to hold court In place of Judge Bur-
well; and the commissioners Bought
his advice for some Way to escape
payment of these claims.
Every phase of the question vu
discussed between Judge Burford and
the commissioners, and he advised
them that when the board of health
had allowed a claim the commission-
ers were bound to pay it and that
he saw no remedy for the county
against the claims. At this time the
twenty thousand dollars bond issue
was decided upon and authorized to
meet the claims that had accumu-
lated above wh^t could be and had
been paid out of the proper fund.
Notwithstanding all this legal advice
to the board of commissioners, all
along, from the first, they Bcaled down
every claim that they thought un-
just—doing this in the face of the
law. Claimants have all along, In
many instances, acepted such action
have the delay and expensesGogscl
of the commissioners rather than
have the delay and expense of a suit;
but as the law and the opinions of
the Attorney eGneral, the Judges, and
lawyers in general, became known
and understood by the claimants,
they became more stubborn and less
disposed to abide by the action of the
commissioners in scaling down
claims allowed by the Board of
Health in cases where th claimnts
prferred to tke what the commis-
sioners agreed to rather than sue for
what the board of health had allowed
A LEGAL VOTER.
On last Tuesday night at the
McGuire speafcing, the McGuire
men got brave and announced that
there would be a debate between
the McGuire and Mathews Clubs.
After their leader, Mr. McGuire,
had left their courage failed them;
so that when the Mathews Club—
true to their man—put in their ap-
pearance none of the McGuire
speakers were there. The chair-
man of the Mathews Club called
the house to order as a Mathews
meeting, and then speaking began
in earnest in defense of our gallant
The first speaker called was Mr.
Collins, who made a brief but pa-
triotic democratic talk. He dwelt
at some length on the veil that the
republicans had kept over Ok-
lahoma. After he took his
seat Mr. T. F. Shrewder, a repub
lican, arose and spoke in a few
words to the effect that Grover
Cleveland was the veil referred to.
He waa ably answered by Dr. Wil-
Next speaker called was P. C.
Nance who showed up Mr. Mc-
Guire in grand style. He talked
Voung Seivaly then mabe a nice
little speech in favor of democracy.
Next, J. R. McCutchin (Our
Bob) was called for and he came
forth fully prepared to defend the
democracy. Ha talked on
the INDIANA 8AFELY DEMOCRATIC.
W. J. Bryan Declares Hoosier State
Will Oo Strongly for Parker.
West Baden, Ind., Oct. 16.—"Judg-
ing from my Impression in this state,
and the numerous conferences I have
had with party leaders, there is no
doubt in my mind that Indiana will
go strongly for Judge Parker." This
was the statement made this evening
to a Dallas News correspondent by
William Jennings Bryan. "Indiana is
a great fighting ground," he con-
tinued, "and both parties are put-
ting up a desperate struggle, but
when it is over, the grand State will
be found in the democratic column.
My purpose in oouring the state Is to
urge all who supported me to stand
by Judge Parker and they will do so.
The democracy need have no fear
at losing this state.
Marie Heath will play an engage-
ment at the Harris Opera House, in
this city, October 25th presenting the
new rural play "For Mother's Sake,"
written by Carrie Ashley-Clarke. The
supporting company is excellent, and
there la not a flaw In the ensemble.
The play is a particularly strong one,
and there are many fine situations
and dramatic climaxes which are
made most of in the hands of the
excellent company engaged. The
cast requires twenty-five speaking
parts, and the management has se-
lected with great care a company
adapted to the roles, even to the chil-
dren required for the village tots,
although appearing In two scenes
only. Their singing and pretty ways
add greatly to the success of the pro-
TNE WEEK'S BILL
BEGINNING OCTOBER 31 GREER
WILL BE VISITED BY TWO
EACH ATHEUD OF HIS CUSS
Judge Henry M. Furman, of Ardmore,
and Hon. Lealie P. Roes, 0f Law-
ton—Will Make Fourteen
Speeches In County.
To the Editor of the Mangum Star
and voters of Greer county: I was
nominated for county treasurer on the
populist ticket for Greer county; will
say that I aimed to canvass the coun-
ty, but on account of my daughter bo-
ttle ing very low with typhoid fever. She
has been In bed for six weeks and Is
still in bed; not able for me to .leave
home. I aim to canvass some' yet.
I noticed in the Mangum Star that J.
W. Berry invites all candidates to
meet at Mangum October 20. I will
say that I will be there if my daught-
er is so I can possibly leave home.
T. W. EARNEST.
favorable character. Prominent among i„"t, . " °Vne 37,ou<) amount of
them is the report on cotton of the al] pox claims laid in against the
United States Department of Agrlcul- °°l,P,,y were as ba,d and "nlushlng
ture, issued on Monday last, and which Bra"8 f8 were ever attempted and
made the condition 76.8 on September XS1 -7 ,1, °Ut' We. have
25. These figures seem to assure to rePeatedly made the same charge,
the spinners of the world a supply of Were .Krafta authPrized by a
the staple amply .•.ufflclont to meet L°?IfVi e" * le"
the current season's consumptive re- *vlrv Jn!\ up°at,|e counties by
qulrements. Of course the time of ,hl Terrulirv« ♦U f® "
killing frost is yet a decidedly Impor- £ 8 and *raft8 ^at wen
tlon and the pockets of the employees
of such appointees. In 1899 and 1900,
the first two years of the accumula-
tion of these claims, County Attorney
Matnews and the board of commis-
sioners tried every possible way to
discover how the county might es-
cape payment of them.
The opinion of a republican attor-
ney general was obtained. Ho sold
they nniBt be paid. The advice of
District Judge Burwell was sought
and obtained. He advised the coun-
ty attorney and commissioners that
the same question had been up to him
in another county of his district; that
he had carefully considered It, and
he thought the county could do noth-
ing else but pay them. During these
two years the opinion of the other
four Judges, each of whom had prob-
ably passed upon the same question
In their own districts, was obtained
In one way or another. Each and all
held that the county board of health
had no authority under the statutes
to decide what should be done, what
medical attention was 1 ecessary, what
supplies should be rurnlshed, and to
audit and allow all claims for the
same; and further, that the board
of commissioners could not refuse
payment nor scale down these claims.
And such appeared to be the law
that an Iniquitous republican legis-
lature had Imposed upon us. With
this law before their eyes, with this
advice from the attorney general and
Judge Burwell, and with knowledge
that all the other judges held the
same view, Mr. Mathews and the com-
missioners found Ihemsolvoa in a
helpless condition. The oounty board
of health was composed of three per-
sons, a superintendent of health, Ihe
physician who performed most of Ihe
duties, a vice-president of ihe board
(both appointed by Ihe territorial re-
publican administration) and the
county superintendent of schools, who
was president of the board of health
tiro 01 ueaun naa anoweu. ; e*C' an<^
No lawyer at the bar here, except. I showedwhy the republicans would
Mr. Thacker, is known to have so | never give us single statehood, and
much as expressed an opinion that i how McGuire had promised and
there was any chance to defeat these ' failed. There is not a more force-
claims; but Mr. Thacker. in 1901, able speaker in these parts of the
promulgated the opinion that the WOods than "Our Bob "
county was not bound to pay for rir ,
treating and supplying the people ! ln. ^lonor *_0!
who had small pox, except in cases | nank made a nice speech!
of paupers. His view was that the | showing how, possibly, Frank j The O. A. R. of Hobart will have
superintendent of health should sim- might be defeated by the voters of J a grand reunion lasting from Octo-
ply investigate and report cases, quar- Greer County not turning out and j ber 25 to 28- inclusive. A splendid
antlne all proper cases, and prescribe voting on election day. He show- I)r°er6 n has been prepared and
Continued Pane Twelve. 1 that this COUUty could poll
a majority sufficient to elect our
CO TO POLLS UNO
i L. Carpenter, and others would
speak to the Mathews Club at Dry-
den on the night of tne 29th just.
A vote was taken to secure the
Hollis band for that night. A com-
mittee, with the chairman added,
was appointed to secure the servi-
ces of the band.
Thus ended the appointment of
the debate between the McGuire
and Mathews Clubs at the Dryden
school house on Saturday night,
ON ELECTION DAY AND VOTE
STRAIGHT FOR MATHEWS
Our Marie Correspondent Offers Some
Good Reasons and Advice—Worthy
of the Highest Conslderstion—Get
Your Democracy on Straight.
great time is assured those who at-
ABOUT OUR MAIL SERVICE
As a result of correspondence be-
tween the county and territorial or-
ganizations the Democratic terrtorial
committee will send us two and pos-
sibly three of the best speakers in
the territory for the week before the
election. Hon. Henry M. Furman,
°i Ardmore, I. T„ the leading lawyer
of the Indian Territory, comes to Ok-
lahoma appealing for aid from her
democracy in ridding the twin terri-
tory and especially the Indian Terri-
tory of the all but Intolerable condl-
tions with which they now strugle.
-Hon. Leslie P. Ross, of Lawton, la
an old timer ln the territory, is of the
Arkansaw school a very able man
and one who at one time held the
politics of Oklahoma in his own
hands and who it is said dispensed
the patronage of the territory in the
most discreet and satisfactory man-
ner ever witnessed.
Oct. 31, Headrick, 2 p. m.; Altus at
Nov. 1, Blair, 2 p. m.; Mangum at
Nov. 2, Wjllow 2 p. m.; Poarch,
Mills county, at night.
Hess, 8 p. m. Nov. 1;
Elpier, 2 p. m., Wednesday;
Olustee, 8 p. m., Nov. 2;
Victory, 2 p. m„ Thursday;
Duke, 8 p. m„ Nov. 3;
Martha, 2 p. m., Friday;
Warren, 8p. m., Nov. 4;
Granite, 2 p. m., Saturday;
Sand Hill, 8 p. m., Nov. 5.
Everyone who possibly can, should
turn out to these speakings and hear
these gentlemen who are the highest
type of manhood and who are thor-
oughly versed In the Issues under
EFFORT TO HAVE POSTAL DE
PARTMENT ACT IN OUR BE-
HALF BEING CONSIDERED.
mate yield, but the comparative earll-
ness of the present crop tends to
lessen the harm frost can do unless It
comes abnormally early. Last year
the crop was very late, the latest ln
our record, and frost was very early,
shortly after the middle of October.
This year the crop Is fully two to .1
weeks in advance of 1903, conditions
having caused It to mature rapidly,
and there has been practically noth-
ing to Interfere with Its speedy gath-
ering. Furthermore, the prospects,
with frost delayed, of a fair top crop
are considered good by those who
have made recent investigations.
This October report of the depart-
ment, being the last in which the con-
dition of the growing plant is cover-
ed; Is quite generally used as a basis
for figuring out the probable crop.
Making such use of It this year
■dme very interesting deductions are
reached. As stated above, the De-
partment reports the average condi-
tion on September 25 at 75.8 against
65.1 last year, 68.3 in 1902 and a ten-
year average of 00.8. The average
yield per acre during the decennial pe-
riod covered (1894 to 1903, Inclusive)
was about 201 tt pounds, and the nine-
points Improvement In condition over
the t^n-year period now repdrtnd
would appnar to Indicate that with
normal weather during the remainder
of Ihe season an out-turn of 220 lbs.
could be looked for. On this year's
area (32,303,000 acres! that would
mean a crop of 1416 million bales of
last season's average weight. The
lowest return per acre secured during
the ton years (In fact since 1889) was
170 pounds In 1903, but the condition
this year being reported 10.7 points
better, a yield of 188 pounds Is Indi-
cated on a ten-year comparison, which
applied to Ihe area above stated,
would give 124 million hales. On the
other hand, If we were to make simi-
lar calculations, based upon the big
crop years (188V9H and 1R9K-09).
Marie, Oct. 15, 1904.
Mangum Star, Mangum. O. T.—Will
you please allow us space to say that
we have a Mathews Club at Marie 100
strong, with B. D. Burks and B. E.1
Francis at the helm. The club meets
each Monday night, to which meet-
ings the public and especially the op-
position are cordially Invited. I would
urge that the voters of Greer county
If they appreciate their privileges,
power and duty in this campaign?
If they realize their importance in this
campaign to the territory at large?
If they appreciate the fact that the
election of Frank Mathews means
more than his success? That the fu-
ture destiny of the great state we arc
seeking to carve from what was a
few years ago a wilderness, hangs in
the balance and that they, the voters
of Grer county are to be the greatest
| October 15th, 1904.
The democracy will come out
| here in the same proportion on the
8th of November in the election of
I Warren Wobblings.
Everybody was binding their ener-
gies now gathering the crops. The
| crops are very short on the black land
< but the sand notwithstanding It do
j blow Is coming to the front with a
fair crop. Cotton pickers are in de-
• mand, but with good weather there Is
The Department Cannot Control But enough to save it. Our gin has put
Will Use Good Offices to Obtain
Better Service.—Pres. White
to Take Matter Further.
enforce the ordinance requiring all
hog-pens to be floored, and prohibit-
ing more than two hogs on any ono
JAS. A. McKIBBIN. Marshal.
To Mr. and Mrs. W. H. Beauchamp,
at their home on Jefferson street,
last Saturday afternon, a son was
dsSttar"Ct0r <he flX,n* °f th#t I F^SoS
ny- j0' town, a son waa born laat Sunday
A little daughter put In her appear-
Tese being facta, how promptly
cheerfully and with what pride should
we as democrats go about this our sa-
cred duty! There should be no shirk-
ing or sulking In tents, none absent
from the polls on election day. We
should remember that voting time on-
ly comes once In two years and that
any one can spare a half day off to go
to thepolls and do his duty to his
country by casting his ballot for Frank
Mathews as the honorable and wor-
the representative of the best there
Is In American politics.
! To the delegates of the Olustee Co-
lt should be remombered also that lTn,"n °' October 7 and 8,
while everything Is one-sided In Greer 1!,04: "ou «rH hereby called to 'e-
county politics It Is alao so In other . ?£nv?"e " < u*t®e on October 29. at
parts of the territory only Its the oth- i 0clock a. :m. for the tranaactlon
er way about thf.ro, and that every J ,"ch '•"■•ness as may come before
democratic vote in Oreer county Is | toe body. All are urged to be on time
needed at this time for the purpose of *■ important business is to be trana-
wlnning or for the moral effect It will *cted. fl. R. HATTON,
have for the present and future.
We may rest assured that the Mc-
Guire forces will have their strength
out on eloctlon day and in this alone
we may follow a republican example.
Rev. Elder Returns.
We are Informed from private
sources that Rev. Elder will return
Our oounty and territorial organlxa- , from hla outing the laat of this week
lions are working night and day for and will All his regular appointment
the auccess of Prank Mathews and next Sunday.
the greatness of the principles he I _____
stands for, bul they need the co-opper- | -.Thoy that t|M) Negro 8how
A short while ago Mr. W. W. White,
president of the city council, circu-
lated a paper here, which was numer-
th„ 0" OU8ly 8lSned- the purpose of which
ine people of the town of Mangum j was to call attention to the postal au-
w ^ wa™ed ,hat I w"l. begin- I thoritles of the very poor railroad
ning Monday October 23rd, atrlctly i mall service we were getting since
the late schedule was put in force,
and asking for a change.
The following reply was received
a few days ago, and it is self-explana-
tory. It will be noted that there is
poor encouragement contained there-
in, but the matter will not rest here,
for further efforts will be made to
reinstate a more decent mail service.
The reply reads:
Washington, October 13, 1904.
Mr. W. W. White:
Sir—Your letter of the 7th Instant,
which is also signed by numerous
residents of Mangum, relative to the
change ln schedule on the Rock Is-
land railroad line reaching your city,
has been received.
In reply I have to atate that un-
der the law the Department cannot
control train schedules and can use
for mall purposes only such trains as
railroad companies find It advisable
to operate. The Department, of
course, wishes to maintain the best
possible mall service for the support
of your city, as well as other cities
of the country, and will undertake
to make the best poslble use for msii
purposes of any train service the
company can be Induced to operate.
The attentloq of the company will
be called to the matter, and If It Is
willing to restore the former service,
or establish other services that will
be more aatlsfactory to the people of
Mangum, the Department will be glad
to use as above ludlcsted the trains
the company will eatabllah and main-
tain. Very respectfully,
W. 8. SHALLENBURG,
Second Aaslutant Postmaster General.
ance at the home of Mr. and Mrs.
Emmet Powers, living four miles
north-west of town last Sunday.
Meeting of the Co-Union of ths Farm-
era Educational and Co-operative
Union of Amsriea.
up 425 bales to date.
The candidates and speakers are
giving Warren a wide birth and we
are not even on the list for Phorty
may be heard from on November 8
Phunny Phellows. Never mind we
may be heard from on No. 8th.
A new boy came to stay with Floyd
and as it is the first he Is almost rav-
ing sideways with dulight. Mother
and child doing fairly well under Dr
A new girl at YV. H. Oibbs'. It is
only the 13th child. Brother Glbbs Is
taking Roosevelfs advice.
Dud Roach and family are going
to move to the wooly-west In a few
days. Wheeler county, Texas.
W. E. Taylor has treated himself
to a brand new surry. He alms to
make 2.40 time on the shell road,
Why is it that everything and every
body seems to try to keep down the
price of farm products. It does
seem strange that ln a great republic
like ours that the question of politics
should effect the price of cotton. Oh
shame, where is thy blush?
Mr. Clarence Brisbane and Misj
Christina Hawes were married at the
home of the bride's parents near
oratllo VlusMn'tha'territor* *?(> make ^ n,,tht WM *■«* « K ^ thffS^ EE
cratlc voter In the territory to make bum. John K> Klrk oaolaUnr
Trials and Tribulations.
W. A. Starnes, who lives about
twelve miles south-west of town,
was a caller at the Star office last
Satuiday and rela'ed something of
the trouble his people had ln organ-
izing a new achol district. It ap-
pears that the movement was put on
foot about one year ago, that they
succedlng in dividing it last Novem-
ber, that the opposition then peti-
tioned to consolidate for the purpose
of a union graded school, thst this
was defeated, that then another peti-
tion waa circulated to cut off about
oue-thlrd of the north side of the
new district und the Lord only
knows from whenco the next attack
will be made.
They have selected Miss Mary Bolt
aa teacher, have a Sunday school or-
ganized, enrolling fifty-five the first
day. D. F. Westbrok In superin-
The school district Is No. 140,
which they named Thompaon's school
i.ouse. The trustee are C. M. Clark,
director; W. A. Starnes, clerk, and
W. R. Hsrmon. treasurer.
C. M. Clark, living about ten miles
south and west of town, was on a
business mission here Monday.
Here’s what’s next.
This issue can be searched. Note: Results may vary based on the legibility of text within the document.
Tools / Downloads
Get a copy of this page or view the extracted text.
Citing and Sharing
Basic information for referencing this web page. We also provide extended guidance on usage rights, references, copying or embedding.
Reference the current page of this Newspaper.
Echols, R. C. & Townsend, G. B. The Mangum Star. (Mangum, Okla. Terr.), Vol. 17, No. 16, Ed. 1 Thursday, October 20, 1904, newspaper, October 20, 1904; (gateway.okhistory.org/ark:/67531/metadc280747/m1/1/: accessed September 20, 2017), The Gateway to Oklahoma History, gateway.okhistory.org; crediting Oklahoma Historical Society.