Chronicles of Oklahoma, Volume 69, Number 2, Summer 1991 Page: 4
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All-Black Towns By George 0. Carney
Oklahoma's first black residents came as slaves with the Five
Civilized Tribes over the Trail of Tears. Others came from the Deep
South in the territorial and early statehood periods, drawn by the
mecca and dream of an all-black state. They left an indelible mark
on the landscape with the creation of all-black towns, of which
thirteen are still in existence. In this issue's feature article, George
Carney reports on a 1983 survey of the historic resources in these
safe havens and theorizes on their future. 116
Indian Soldiers By William H. Graves
Long before the shots at Fort Sumter opened the Civil War, seces-
sionists in Arkansas and Texas cast covetous eyes on the Indian
Territory, sure of its strategic importance to the southern cause.
Union negligence, southern sympathy among agents, and decades-
old tribal dissension provided fertile ground for Confederate over-
tures to the resident tribes of Indian Territory. The late William
Graves explores Confederate Indian policy and the Indians' elo-
quent attempts at resistance. 134
Nix vs. Jones By MaryGaye LeBoeuf
Oklahoma's colorful political history is part of what makes the
state unique. While gubernatorial and legislative opponents com-
pel front-page treatment, judicial contests usually attract little
attention. In 1956 when Kirksey Nix challenged Dick Jones for his
seat on the Criminal Court of Appeals, most observers were dis-
mayed by the scope and bitterness of their battle. MaryGaye Le-
Boeuf describes the campaign, the candidates, and the issues the
state's electorate found so fascinating. 146
Dawes Commission By Kent Carter
The massive task of obtaining an accurate roll of the Five Civilized
Tribes before statehood was assigned to the Dawes Commission,
whose staff spent years in Indian Territory under extremely trying
conditions. To aid those who use the commission's records-family
researchers, historians, and Indians, Kent Carter recounts the
work of the commission among the Cherokees, describes the re-
cords and their present location, and notes the dilemma the Indi-
ans experienced at the time of enrollment. 174
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Oklahoma Historical Society. Chronicles of Oklahoma, Volume 69, Number 2, Summer 1991, periodical, Summer 1991; Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. (https://gateway.okhistory.org/ark:/67531/metadc1827535/m1/4/: accessed May 26, 2022), The Gateway to Oklahoma History, https://gateway.okhistory.org; crediting Oklahoma Historical Society.