Beaver County Republican. (Gray, Okla.), Vol. 11, No. 48, Ed. 1 Friday, December 15, 1916 Page: 2 of 4
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RRAVER COUNTY KKFl'RIfCAN. CRAY. OKT.AHOMA
ITALIAN TROOPS ENTRENCHING ON THE CARSO
EPIDEMIC OF RUST
Heavy Losses May Be Caused by
STATUS OF TROUBLE GIVEN
Italian triMipK on the Carso fntrrocbiog on Hill JUS winch they had Just taken by stona front the Austrian*.
EXAMINING INDIAN SOLDIERS AT SALONIKI
8i<k and wounded Indian soldiers «t Salonlkl being examined by member* of the British medical staff.
MULES AS MUNITION TRANSPORTS
International Fdm Sff *rte
QUEEN MAUD OF NORWAY
Hcene on the western front, showing shells being rushed to the lines on
backs of mules, the roads being virtual quagmires.
THE EYES OF THE ARMY
- fenle* . m
Each of Common Cerejls Including
Corn Subject to Attack—Grasses
Have Marked Influence on
Prevalence of Rust.
By H H. HCMPHHET. C«r«*l Patholo-
gist. l-'ntted States Department of Agrt-
A very serious epidemic of stem
ru*t ("black rust") of wheat which oc-
curred the |ast season, especially In
the sj.ring wheat states, has forcibly
thought to light the heavy looses
which may be caused by this disease.
The following « n brief description of
the present status of our knowledge
of the cereal rusts and of the effort*
which are being made, especially by
the department of agriculture, to In-
vestigate and combat thera.
Kinds of Rusts.
Each of the common cereals Includ-
ing corn la subject to the attack of
runt. As viewed by the farmer, this
rust looks somewhat similar Id all
case* In reality, however, there are
several different kinds of rust which
are distinct from each other and which
vary In their virulence of attack.
Wheat, for Instance, la known to have
In this country three kinds of rust:
leaf rust, stem rust, and a yellow or
stripe rust. Oats is commonly afflict-
ed with both a leaf rust, sometime*
also called "crown rust," and a stem
rust. Barley aijd rye also have leaf
and stem rusts. On corn, however,
only one kind of rust is found, and
this is rarely serious.
The oat rusts are very commonly
present and sometimes cause severe
epidemics In certain oat-growing
states. Of the wheat rusts the mast
important one at the present time is
the stein rust, commonly called the
"black rust." which was the cause of
the epidemic of«rast in the spring
wheat states this year. The leaf rust
of wheat is almost alwnys present ev-
ery year and la familiar to most farm
ers as "red rust," and while It un-
doubtedly does at least a slight dam-
age. it seldom if ever causes a severe
loss. The • yellow, or stripe rust of
wheat, has only recently been discov-
ered in this country. It also attacks
barley and certain wild grasses and
| hus been found in the western part of
the United States, but not as yet east
of the Kocky mountains except in east
era Wyoming. It is a common rust
in Europe und considered a serious
disease. If it continues to spread In
this country, and If it proves as seri-
ous an enemy to wheat here as It has
lu Europe. It is possible that It will
add materially to the rust troubles of
Since the cereal rusts inay also live
on grass plants, a considerable study
has been undertaken to find out the
exact relations between the rusts
found on wild grasses and those on
cereals. The matter Is found to be
somewhat complex. There can be no
doubt that the grasses have a marked
Influence on the prevalence of rust,
and that wheat rust epidemics are con-
siderably promoted by the common
wild grasses. The different rusts are
found, however, only on certain kinds
of grasses and these relationships, to-
gether with the possible efTect of the
grasses on the virulence of an epi
demic, are now being Investigated.
Another extremely important ques-
tion under Investigation Is that of
rust in the seed. It has been known
j for some time tbnt In badly-rusted
fields the rust if often present even
on the tips of the wheat seeds. It has
been thought by some that this rust
might be transmitted by the seed'to the
youug seedling and thus start tfle epi
demic again In the following spring
Evidence from field und greenhouse
experiments conducted up to the pres-
ent time does not support this view,
but conclusive evidence is dependent
on further investigation.
As far as is known at the present
time It Is SMfe to' take seed from a
rusted field. It Is aeoessary. towover.
that the lightweight, shrunken ker-
nels be removed and only the hesivif«t |
seed obtainable useO from fuch a
field. Much of the wheat #rom this
year'a crop Is of very |H*>r quality,
and should be thoroughly fanned and
screened. Special effort should be
made this year to provide for good
Seed Wheat for next year. Germina-
tion tests, of course, should be made.
A number of state experiment sta-
tions are vitally interested in the rust |
work and are co-operating with the |
cereal pathologist of the department.
There is also considerable co-opera- I
live work being done on the variety j
testing and breeding of cereals for rust
resistance. The major portion of this ,
work is devoted to wheat, but oats is '
also receiving some attention. In this |
work rust nurseries are maintained at
four experiment stations wheie each
year an artificial epidemic is secured,
thus allowing for continuous rust rec-
ords on any given variety, and also in-
suring the most severe rust conditions
possible. Work on spring wheat is in
progress at the Minnesota station; at
the Iowa station on spring oats; ut the I
Kansas station on soft winter wheats;
and at the Tennessee station on soft
winter wheats and winter oats. The
field trials on rust resistance arc sup-
plemented by greenhouse tests, ubere I
both seedling and mature plants are |
artificially inoculated with rust and '
degree of infection noted.
Testing and Breeding.
The results on the variety t><*tlng
for resistance up to the present time )
have demonstrated several general I
facts. None of the common, or so-
called bread spring wheats, is to any
useful degree Immune to the stem
rust attack. The most commonly
grown of these susceptible varieties
of spring wlieats are the Fifes. Blue-
stems, and bearded wheats. Inciting
such varieties as Marquis, Power l ife,
Huynes Biuestem, Prelude and i'res- j
ton. On the other hand. It bits Ik en j
abundantly demonstrated that certain j
varieties bf durum and emtuer are ex-
tremely resistant to the rust in con-
trast to the common spring whents.
This fact has been very clearly dttn- '
onstrated In the rust epidemic of the !
past sea%on, where the coram in
wheats, as well as many varieties of
durum wheats were very heavily rust- j
ed, while other adjacent rows of du-
rum wheat were practically clean cl' j
rust. In the field many farmers suf-
fered severe loss In their durum crop j
on account of the rust, while other*.' 1
obtained yields of two to three times j
us many bushels of better grade wheat '
than was obtained from the common
bread wheats In the same vicinity, j
This demonstrates very strongly the
necessity for planting, where durum !
wheat Is successfully grown, only the
It Is well known that seed treatment
has no efTect on the rust. Soil treat-
ment Is also almost Ineffective, except
insofar as good soil practice will put
the seedbed In the best condition and
promote the roost rapid and vigorous
growth of the wheat plant.
Of course, spraying of grain fields
is not only impracticable but useless
as well. Certain farm practices, as
for Instance the use of well-drained
land, however, should be followed In
order that the crop may be given the
best possible chance to escape au epi-
demic or to endure It.
Early maturing varieties on well-
prepared land sown as early in the
season as possible, may assist in es-
caping the rust if the attack is late.
There can be no logical reason for
maintaining common bnrberry plants
anywhere In the vicinity of grain
fields. Certainly no new ones should
be planted and the old ones sliould
AOALNST A SPELL OF
AT THE FIRST SIGN OF TROUBLE
"Is your portable garage satisfac-
"Oh, yes," replied the suburban
dweller, "it suits me very well and
I'm glad for my wife's sake that 1
bought the portable klud."
"She's had it moved half a dozen
times because she didn't think It
looked well from the street.—Birm-
unu cmiuren, aiiu see iu«i u
SILAGE SPOILS IF TOO DRY
Also Deteriorates if Air Is Not Ex-
pelled by Thorough Tramping—
Two Men Needed.
When filling the silo, remember that
silage spoils If too dry or the air Is
not expel I'm! by thorough tramping.
The tendency of late years has been
to put corn In the silo too dry. It
should he moist enough to wet the
feet of the men who tramp It. If too
dry. ndd water by running It Into the
blower. At least two men are needed
to tramp the silage at filling.
RIGHT METHODS OF STORING
yueen Maud may find her country
Involved In the great war. owing to
Gennauy's destruction of Norwegian
shipping. She was the third daughter
of King Edward VII of Great Britain
and married King Haakon in 1SU0.
This is a new and hitherto unpub-
llshed photograph of the queen.
Mrs. Knagg—I wish you wouldn't
talk In your sleep so much. It dla
turbs me. 1 never talk in my sleep.
Mr. Knagg—1 know, my dear. Bo
you have to rest your vocal organs at
times und I really ought to exercise
An observer In a small hole In-the rocks of a hill in the Itulknn* watching
the movements of thu enemy und sending the newa buck by wireless to the
Minnie—So sorry to hear of yo*.r
motor accident I
Lionel—Oh. (hanks; It's nothing. Ex
peCt to live through many mora.
Minnie—Oh. but I hope not!—Cin-
cinnati Commercial Tribune
Plan ta Arrange Seed Corn So That
Ears Do Not Touch—Thorough
Drying Is Requiaita.
There are a number of good methoda
of storing seed corn. In general, select
a method which does not allow the
ears to touch one another, one that Is
cheap, one that takes, up the smallest
amount of space, and <me tliut is the
most hnndy to hold the ears for germi-
There are several methods that
should not be used; ns tying up by the
husks, hanging in a crate from the
ceiling, or piling up In a heap nenr a
There are bound to be some of the
kernels Injured by such methods. So,
In selecting the method of storage, se-
lect one that will furnish nearly Ideal
conditions for rapid and thorough dry-
ing out of the ears.
Make Runts of Hoga.
Little, short, rouul-legged, llgM-
boned hogs are not confined to any
one breed. A lack of proper feeding
and sanitation, absence of proper cate
and pasture will make runts of any
hog. regardless of breed or color.
The- One-Idea Man.
It puys to stick to one thing. Only
those persons In whose lives some one
great purpose outweighs everything
else rise above the shoulders of the
crowd. Concentration does It. Strag-
glers In the commercial world are re-
minded that "the man who minds his
own business will soon have a business
of his own to mind." Pnul had a pas-
sion for one thing, ns he said. "Forget-
ting the things which are behind, and
stretching forward to the things which
are before. 1 press on toward the goal
unto the prize of the high cnlllng of
God In Christ Jesus." And Paul sue
ceeded, by holding to that one thing
so that his life was glorified by tin
presence of Christ, and tunde frultfu
to the rest of the world, ns few If nn>
other lives of the Christian era. Hav«
you decided what your one goal IsT—
Sunday School Times.
Christ, can give even a profan
swearer a new heart—and also a nev
vocabulary. Cussing men are a men
Important to mothers
Examine carefully every bottle of
CASTOltlA, that famous old remedy
for infants and children, and see that It
In Use for Over 30 Years.
Children Cry for Fletcher's Caston*
"That's a good sigu. my man," said
the passing pedestrian, as he watched
a driver of a coal wagon fix his cbuta
lu the hole on the pavemeut.
"What's It a good sign of?" asked
the man. pasing in his work.
"Why, it is an infallible sign that
coal Is going down."
SOAP IS STRONGLY ALKALINE
and constant use will burn out tb*
scalp. Cleanse the scalp by shampoo-
ing with "La Creole" Hair Dressing,
and darken, in the natural way, thos«
ugly, grizzly hairs. P ice *1.00.—Adr.
DIDN'T RECOGNIZE TONGUE
Youngstown Man Not the Only On*
Who Has Failed to Understand
Valmont and R^ynon, a young coupla
who presented a singing act on the
program at the Hippodrome recently,
are Belgians who are In this country
through special permission of their
home government due to the fact that
they had signed contracts and pur-
chased transportation before the war
Reynon. the male member of the
team, served In the trenches for six
months before arrangements for hi*
departure to America could be made.
"You speak English remarkably well,
considering the brief time you have
been In this country," a friend ob-
served to Reynon, one day at the hip-
"My wife is speek much bettalre."
"Is that so?"
"I like your Tostl's 'Good-By' num-
ber, because you sing It In English."
"You like ze second nombalre, tooT"
"Yes, but of course I can't under-
"NoT Znt ees strange, because we
sing r.at In English, too."—Youngstown
MI say, Rings, here's one of your
golf balls that was missing under the
"Sh 1 don't say It bo loud. Thafs
one of my wife's biscuits."
A woman Is as vain of her small feet
as a man of his large haL
Cattle Have Tactea.
Which would you rather eat. fresh.
Juicy fruit or a piece of dried apple?
Cattle have tastes, too. Build a silo
and then your cattle will not have to
put up with dried-apple feed all the
But the Ignorance of a lawyer Isn't
bliss for his client.
The cheerful feeling you
possess after a drink of
something hot and flavor)
should be only the beginning
of your satisfaction.
For this very reason more
and more people are turning
from coffee to
A lessened tendency to such
annoyances as nervousness
and sleeplessness repays
A ten-day trial of this de-
lightful, flavory hot drink has
assisted so many to health
md comfort that your friend,
<«• Postum drinker, will tell
ts well worth while.
"••Sucre's a Reason'9
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Hill, Harvey W. Beaver County Republican. (Gray, Okla.), Vol. 11, No. 48, Ed. 1 Friday, December 15, 1916, newspaper, December 15, 1916; (gateway.okhistory.org/ark:/67531/metadc158329/m1/2/: accessed February 24, 2018), The Gateway to Oklahoma History, gateway.okhistory.org; crediting Oklahoma Historical Society.