Garber Sentinel. (Garber, Okla.), Vol. 23, No. 4, Ed. 1 Thursday, October 20, 1921 Page: 3 of 8

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THE GARBER SENTINEL. GARBER, OKLAHOMA
Hoi* a " Greater*
Colorado RiVer'
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JOHN DICKINSON SHERMAN.
IE Colorado river is one of the great
rivers of the United Status. A joint
resolution of congress proposes a
"Greater Colorado." This is to be
done by adding 423 miles .of stream.
This addition is to be accomplished
by changing to Colorado the name
of the Grand river from its source
near Rocky Mountain National park
in northern Colorado to its junction
■with the Green river in southeastern Utah. The
Grand and Green rivers together make the Colo-
rado river.
The Grand is 423 miles long from its source to
Its junction with the Green. Eighty miles of this
stream's length Is in Utah. The Green rises just
south of Yellowstone National park in northwest-
ern Wyoming and is 700 miles long to its junction
with the Grand. The Colorado, from Utah to the
Gulf of California, is 1,000 miles long.
Though the Green is nearly twice as long as
the Grand, the Grand carries the greater volume
of water. Moreover, the Green runs 35 miles
through the northwestern corner of Colorado and
receives much of its volume from Colorado. It is,
therefore, contended by Colorado that the Grand
Is the real upper Colorado and that the Green is
a tributary.
It is the people of Colorado who are behind the
joint resolution for the change of name. With
them it appears to be a matter of deep sentiment.
Representative E. T. Taylor of Colorado, speaking
to the joint resolution, said:
"Mr. Speaker, for the past 35 years my home
lias been and is now in the beautiful little city
of Glenwood Springs, Colo., on the banks of what
has heretofore been called the Grand river, the
principal tributary and, in fact, the main stream
of the Colorado river, and during all those years
I have always hoped and believed that sometime
the state pride of the sons and daughters of our
beloved commonwealth would bring about the
■change of the name of that stream to its rightful
name, as the source and principal part of that
wonderful river, and permit our citizens to fondly
nnd proudly welcome the greatest river in our
state as our great state's stream under the name
that is dearest to every Coloradan heart. And
with the passage of this resolution that hope of
many years, not only of my own, but thousands of
other Coloradans, will be consummated."
At its last session the Colorado legislature
passed a bill officially changing the name of the
■Grand from Grand to Colorado, within the state
boundaries. A bill was introduced in the Utah
legislature at the last session to change the name
of the Grand from Grand to Colorado within the
■boundaries of Utah. The Utah legislature did not
act on the bill and will not meet again for two
years.
In the meantime, inasmuch as the Colorado
Is an interstate and international stream and is
classed as navigable, it has been decided that the
change in name should be brought about by act
of congress rather than by action of the stateB.
Moreover, the Colorado bulks large in the public
•eye just now as a national river of tremendous
Importance. Already water power and irrigation
projects of great Importance—the Imperial valley
In California, for example—mark the course of
the river. Projects under discussion are appar-
ently of still greater importance—the proposed
Boulder dam across the Colorado just below the
Grand canyon, for Instance. This project may be
undertaken by the federal government.' It would
be the most spectacular work of its kind in the
world and would cost anywhere between forty and
seventy-five millions.
The Colorado is a mighty river beyond doubt.
Many rivers unite to form it. The principal
branches of the Green are the Uinta, Price, Yam-
pa and White; of the Grand, the Eagle, Itoarlng
Fork, Gunnison and Dolores; of the Colorado, the
Fremont, Esealante, Paria, Kanab and Virgin on
the right and the San Juan, Little Colorado, Bill
Williams and Gila on the left. The Grand canyon
Is on the main river in Arizona and extends from
the mouth of the Little Colorado to tile Grand
Wash. The Gram] Canyon National park encloses
217 miles of the river, which In plnces Is 0,000
feet below the rim of the canyon. The lower
Colorado runs through a low desert country. At
Yuma, on the Mexican line, is an Immense irriga-
tion project which consists of a diversion dam
nearly a mile long, 400 miles of canals and 70
miles of dikes and cost about $5,000,000. The
water is carried to Arizona lands by a thousand-
foot tunnel, which passes under th« river.
Relow Yunm the river, when in flood, inundates
large nreas lying below sea level In 1005 the
floods enlarged the 50-foot intake of the Imperial
valley (California) irrigation canal In Mexican
territory to 2,000 feet. It poured all its waters
through this break and lis regular channel to the
Gulf of California went dry. This break was not
successfully closed until 1000-07. Floods again
threatened to drown out the Imperial valley and
in 1009-10 n congressional appropriation of *1.0<H),-
000 was applied to the construction of levees and
<likea. The waters of the Colorado here vun In
a huge aqueduct, which the river has built up for
itself from silt. Tills aqueduct cut the purt to
the north off from the Gulf of,California. Evapo-
ration has left only tv« Salton sea, which Is salt
and below sea level.
cuy &&
An interesting feature of the discussion of the
joint resolution was the bringing out of the his-
tory of the Colorado river and the early American
Southwest In concise and accurate form. This
was set forth in a report furnished by George
Otis Smith, director of the geological, survey on
the history of the naming of the Colorado, Grand
and Green rivers and of the state of Colorado.
This report explains how the Colorado came to
bear no less than nine names between 1540 and
1770. It also sets forth how the Green river came
to be known as the "Ghost river" to geographers.
Among the facts brought out are these:
It was the Coronado expedition of 1540-42, sent
out by Viceroy Mendoza, that first explored the
■pueblo country of New Mexico and Arizona and
the Great Plains as far northeast as central Kan-
sas and discovered the Colorado river and the
Grand canyon. Alarcon discovered the Colorado
at its mouth and gave it the name of Rio de
Buena Guia (good guide) because that was Men-
doza's "device." Diaz, traveling along the river,
saw the Indians carrying burning brands with
which to warm themselves; so he named it Rio
del Tizon (firebrand). Cardenas discovered the
Colorado at the Grand canyon, but for some rea-
son refrained from naming it, probably because
soon afterward it was identified with the Rio del
Tizon. So the Coronado expedition gave the Colo-
rado its two first names.
The Coronado expedition was disappointing and
it was not until 1581 that an expedition under
Rodriguez revisited the region. Tills revived in-
terest in the conquering and settling of New
Mexico.
The contract for the conquest and settlement
was finally awarded in 1595 to Juan de Onate,
who was made governor, adelantado and captain
general of the province of New Mexico. In 1598,
Onate reached the Santa Fe region with an army
and n colony of 400 men, of whom 130 had their
families. Onate ruled New Mexico until 1605.
By 1005 he and his subordinates had Jeexplored
practically all the ground covered by Coronado
and opened new trails. In 1004 he made a jour-
ney from San Gabriel, his headquarters near Santa
Fe, to the head of the Gulf of California. He
went by way of Zuni, Moqui and Williams river
to the Colorado and down the east bank of that
river to the gulf. Crossing the Colorado Chiquito,
or little Colorado "10 leagues" southwest of Moqui,
he named it "Rio Colorado * because the
water is nearly red." Be it noted that the name
"Colorado" is here given for the first time, not to
the Colorado river but to one of its branches, the
Little Colorado. To the Colorado itself, Onate
gave the name "Rio Grande de Buena Esperanza"
(good hope).
At some indefinite time during the next hundred
years the name Colorado was transferred from
the Little Colorado to the main river, and before
the end of the century had been pretty well estab-
lished. Father Kino, the great Piman apostle,
1083-1711, uses the name freely, as he does the
alternative name Rio del Norte; and he even be-
stows upon It a new name, Rio de los Apostoles.
A revolt of the Pueblo Indians in 1080 resulted
In the entire evneuation of New Mexico by the
Spaniards until its reconquest by Vergas In 1092-
94, when most of the missions were reestablished
also. San Diego, the first of the Californ'a mis-
sions, was established In 1709; and In the next
30 years 17 others had been established, dotting
the coast from San Diego to San Francisco bay.
Father Sllvestre Velez de Esealante, then sta-
tioned at the Zunl mission, spent eight days at
Moqui In June, 1775, trying to discover whether
there was an Indian trail across the Grand canyon.
He failed to extract any Information from the
Indians and concluded that the canyon was im-
passable. In a letter on the subject written to
Father flnrces August 18, 1775. he called the river
or the canyon Hlo Grande de los Cosnlnos. The
Cosnlna (Ilavasupal) Indians were settled on
Cataract creek. The next year, 1770. Careen h?m-
self traveled from Mohave to Moqui, and went
into the Grand canyon at the bend below the Lit-
tle Colorado on June 20. He named the canyon
Puerto de Bucareli (Bucareli's pass) in honor of
the then viceroy.
Grand river, both above and below its junction
with Gunnison river, was named Rio San ltafoel
by Fathers Dotniniguez and Esealante in 1770. To
the south branch, the present Gunnison river, they
gave the name Rio San Javier (Xavier) and re-
ported the Ute Indian name as Tomichi. In this
area Pike's maps, 1805-07, like other early maps,
are difficult to interpret. His "Rio de los Animas"
v (las Animas) is much more like Grand river than
his "Rio San Rafael." In 1843 Fremont lettered
it Grand river, as did Captain Stansbury in 1849.
But for loiig years the maps showed great di-
versity of nomenclature. Below its junction with
the Gunnison, this river was usually called Grand
river, rarely Rio Colorado or Grand and even
Colorado. Above the junction it was called Grand,
Bunkara, Blue and North Fork of Grand river. Gun-
nison river was named variously Eagle, Eagle Tail,
South Fork of Grand, Grande and Grand river.
In after years Captain Gunnison's name became
gradually fixed on the branch which he explored,
and the name Grand on the north or main branch,
while the name Blue river now describes a small
south branch of the latter In Summit county,
Colorado.
Green river was called Rio de San Buenaven-
tura by Domlnignez and Esealante In 1770, and
Esealante says (Diarlo, Sept. 17, 1770), that It
was so named in 1703 by Fr. Alonso de Posada
Thinking that it flowed to the west, the map mak-
ers represented it as crossing the Great basin and
flowing Into the Pacific ocean. Thus it was that
the River Buenaventura became the famous "ghost
river," which for years haunted the maps of the far
West. Pike, 1805-07, mapped it with headwaters
in the position of upper Green river, having an
affluent, Rio de San Clemente (Escalante's name
for White river, an east branch of the Green riv-
er), and flowing southwest into Sevier lake (name-
less). Before 1811, however, upper Green river
was known to be connected with the Colorado.
The Astorlans called it both Spanish river and
Colorado river. It was called Rio Colorado hv
Jededlah S. Smith in 1824 and Rio Colorado of
the West by William H. Ashley In 1825. Bonne-
ville, 1837, lettered it Colorado of the West on his
map of the territory west of the Rocky Mountains.
The name Green river dates at least as far
back as 1824. Dale refers to a news item In the
Missouri Intelligencer, June 25, 1825, of a party
leaving Santa Cruz In November, 1824, to trail on
"Green river." Fremont says that the Spaniards,
contrasting "its timbered shores and green wooded
Islands with its dry sandy plains," named It Rio
Verde (Green river) ; Bancroft speaks of an em-
ployee of Ashley's, "Mr. Green who gave his name
to Green river"; and Chittenden advances the
theory that the name may have been suggested
by the color of the water.
The act, of congress providing for the organiza-
tion of the territory of Colorado was approved
February 28, 1801. As Introduced and as passed
by the house, the bill named the proposed new
organization the territory of Idaho—"Idaho" hav-
ing been selected from many names proposed. In
the senate, on motion of Senator Wilson of Mas-
sachusetts, the name of the territory was amended
by striking out "Idaho" and Inserting "Colorado."
This was done at the suggestion of Delegate Wil-
liams, for the reason that the Colorado river arose
in Its mountains, hence there was a peculiar fit-
ness In the name. Bancroft, however, says that
"The name Colorado was given to It at the sug-
gestion of the man (Wlll'nm Gilpin) selected for
Its first governor"; and ho quotes from a manu-
script of Gilpin's as follows: "Some wanted It
called Jefferson, some Arcadia. I said the people
have to a great extent named the slates after the
great rlv rs of the country, and the great feature
of that country is the great Colorado river. 'All.
said he .'Wilson of Massachusetts), 'that Is It';
and be named It Colorado."
• THE •
KITCHEN
CABINET
Cupyrmht. 1V21, Western Newipaper Union.
Our country's prosperity waa built
up by Industry and thrift. Our for-
bears had a lust tor work and accom-
plishment. Instead ot tills our youth
of today are seeking easy waj'B ot sub-
sistence, when there Is no such thins
us an easy way except at the expense
of their own and our country's fu-
ture.—Theodore Vail.
RECIPES WORTH SAVING.
Tlnise who do not enjoy a thick
mayonnaise will like this salad dress-
ing, which will1 keep In-
definitely.
Boiled Salad Dressing. I
1 —Bent the yolks of seven
eggs until thick and lem-
on-colored ; drop three
tablespoonfuis of olive
oil slowly, heating con
tlnually; add onetfinlf
cupful of melted butter
and continue heating; add one-half
cupful of vinegar and the Juice of one
lemon, slowly. Cook In a double
boiler until it coats the spoon. Re-
move from the heat and sift In the fol-
lowing ingredients, which have been
thoroughly blended: One and one-lialf
tablespoonfuis of mustard, one-half
teaspoonfui of white pepper, one-
eighth tenspoonful of cayenne pepper,
three tablespoonfuis of powdered su-
gar. Mix well and, when using the
dressing, add whipped cream.
Potato Salad. —Itoll eight medium-
sized potatoes in their jackets, peel
and cut In one-quurter-inc'i cubes; add
two cucumbers, cut In the same sized
cubes, one cupful of blanched and
shredded almonds, two tablespoonfuis
each of red and green peppers, chopped
fine, with one small onion, also
chopped. Serve with the above boiled
dressing.
Beet Salad.—Take a pint or more of
the small cooked beets, finely diced,
add one pound of shelled pecans,
broken in bits; serve with the boiled
dressing, colored a light pink, 'using
the beet liquor. The beets are best if
marinated for several hours In a small
amount of French dressing.
Frcnch Dressing.—Add one-half tea-
spoonful of salt, one tenspoonful of
powdered sugar, a dash of cayenne to
three tablespoonfuis of oil and one of
vinegar; mix well before using.
Chicken Salad.—Cut cold boiled fowl
Into half-Inch dice; add an equal qunn-
tlty of tender celery, cut In pieces, one
cupful of broken bits of hickory nut
meats. Chop the skin of the chicken
very fine und add to the salad. Mix
well with a boiled dressing and gar-
nish with hard-cooked eggs cut In
eighths, and curled celery.
Arabian Stew.—Sear in a hot fry-
ing pan six pork chops, then remove
to a casserole. On each chop place
one tablespoonful of uncooked rice, a
slice of onion, u slice of tomato or its
equivalent In cooked tomato, two
strips of green pepper. Sprinkle each
with salt and pepper, add hot water
and cover. Cook from three to four
hours In a moderate oven.
You may grow your neighbor grapes
or grape shot; he also will grow grapes
or grape shot for you and you will
each reap what you have sown.-
Ruskln.
SEASONABLE GOOD THINGS.
Now flint the tender fresh carrots
are to be had from the garden, let us
remember to serve them
In such a way that all
the food value Is saved.
Eaten raw, well masti-
cated, the carrot Is one
of the chief food /ege-
tables. Put through the
meat grinder and added
to various soups, suuees,
salads, as well ns main
dishes, It Is not half appreciated.
Spinach is another vegetable that
is especially delicate and highly valu-
able, rich in Iron, mineral salts nnd
In combination with egg and a salad
dressing makes a meal with a bread
and butter sandwich. If one has not
a garden, or the green Is not In mar-
ket, there are several very good brands
of the canned article. Air It for some
time to remove the smothered taste,
drain off the liquor which should be
used In u soup, and serve It sometimes
Just heated with plenty of butter and
a little salt.
With the luscious peach, musk-
melon and pear on the mnrket In
abundance, there will be no lack of
fruit acids and salts which are so
necessary In the body.
A glass of buttermilk with a sand-
wich will often be a satisfying lunch,
but with a dainty sandwich and a
bit of fruit It will tie a well-balanced
meal.
A raw vegetable or a fruit salad
with whole wheat bread sandwich or
a nut-bread sandwich Is especially
appreciated during the sultry fall
days,.
Madeira Cake.—Put the yolks of
two eggs Into a mixing howl, then add
one cupful of sugar nnd one-half cup-
ful of butter. Add two cupfuls of
well-slfted flour with two teaspoon-
fuls of bnklng powder, then add one-
half cupful of sweet cream and a
few gratings of nutmeg, beating all
the time. Lastly, fold In the well-
beaten whites and pour Into a greased
tin lined with buttered paper. Plnce
a slice of cltren on top nnd bake In
a round cake tin. Bnke one hour nnd
a quarter In a moderate oven, lower-
ing the heat after the cake has fully
risen.
"KtJtUc
Makes Hard Work Harder
A bad back mukes a day's work
twice as hard. Backache usually
comes from weak kidueys, and if
headaches, dizziness or urinary dis-
orders are added, don't wait—get
help before the kidney disease
takes a grip—before dropsy, gravel
or Brlght's disease sets In. Doan'a
Kidney Pills have brought new life
and new strength to thousands of
working men and women. Used
nnd recommended the world over.
Ask your neighbor!
A Kansas Case
J. F. Beard, prop.
second-hand clothing
store, 2100 Main St.,
Parsons, Kans., says:
"There wad Just a dull
ache through the £
small of my back and y
such sharp pain sy
would catch me when
I bent over I wouldi*
almost lose my breath.
Mornings my back!
was sore and lame
when I first got up.
I began using Doan's
Kidnev Pills and they soon cured me
entirely and I have not had a return
symptom."
Get Doan't at Any Store, 60c • Box
DOAN'S
FOSTER-MILBURN CO.. BUFFALO. N. Y.
Place for Satan.
Mother—Been fighting with that
Murphy boy again, have you? Why
didn't you say "Get thee behind me,
Satan?"
Tommy—Behind me? Oee! I was
wlsllln' he'd get between us.—Boston
Transcript.
Don't Forget Cutlcura Talcum
When adding to your toilet requisites.
An exquisitely scented fuce, skin, baby
and dusting powder und perfume, ren-
dering other perfumes superfluous.
You may rely on It because one of the
Cutlcura Trio (Soap, Ointment nnd
Talcum). 25c each everywhere.—Ad-
vertisement.
Commuter's Impression.
"Is ibis an accommodation train?"
asked the traveling man.
"Only In a technical sense," replied
Sir. Crosslots. "As a matter of fact
It's one of the most disobliging trains
I ever rode on."
Bnhy's little dresses will just simply
dazzle If Red Cross Ball Blue is used
In the laundry. Try It and see for your-
self. At all good grocers, 5c.—Advert
tlsemcnt
Objection to Classic Dancing.
•Tud Tunklns says he doesn't like
amateur classic dancing because
reminds him of the way summer
boarders act of an evening when the
mosquitoes are bad.
It
tucm
STRIKE
Notice this delicious
flavor when you
smoke Lucky Strike
— it's sealed in by
the toasting process
hfL
Vaseline
Reg U. S. Pat. OfT.
Carbolated
PETROLEUM JELLY
A convenient safe
antiseptic for home
use Invaluable for
dressing cuts and
seres. A time-tried
remedy.
REFUSE SUBSTITUTES
CHESEBggOUCH MFG. Cfe
Stat* Street Vtw York
SLOW
DEATH
Achea, pains, nervousness, diffi-
culty in urinating, often mean
serious disorders. The world's
standard remedy for kidney, liver,
bladder and uric acid troubles—*
COLD MEDAL
bring quick relief and often ward off
deadly diseases. Known as the national
remedy of Holland for more than 200
years. All druggists, in three size*
Look for the name Cold Medal on •rorjr bo|
and accept no imitation

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Peters, S. H. Garber Sentinel. (Garber, Okla.), Vol. 23, No. 4, Ed. 1 Thursday, October 20, 1921, newspaper, October 20, 1921; (https://gateway.okhistory.org/ark:/67531/metadc145205/m1/3/ocr/: accessed May 24, 2022), The Gateway to Oklahoma History, https://gateway.okhistory.org; crediting Oklahoma Historical Society.

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