The Peoples Voice. (Norman, Okla.), Vol. 4, No. 33, Ed. 1 Friday, March 13, 1896 Page: 3 of 8
The following text was automatically extracted from the image on this page using optical character recognition software:
OUR FREE-SILVER FRIENDS ARE i
TopolUt* Are Not As Ku||r I.ixl by tli«
Nim« ti th* Adherents of the Two OM
l'artles Will Not Caiir«ila Italh I'IaI-
farui and C'ondlilale*.
We clip from a Washington dispatch 1
dated Jan. 25, the followlug:
"It is not expected that anything will I
be done about candidates for the silver ,
ticket until after the republican and !
democratic national conventions. Then !
a silver republican and a silver demo-
crat will be' selected from among the [
most prominent members of the old
parties willing to accept places on the j
In view of the contemplated union ;
with the Populists that is very re- t
freshing indeed. Where do the Popu- j
lists come in? They are expected to j
i furnish the votes and then sit on the
fence and watch the procession go by,
It makes us tired.
Hatch said the Populists ought to '
have voted tho Democratic ticket in ;
No doubt Teller thinks they ought |
to have voted the Republican ticket
There are Eome things doubtful and
some things are very plain.
It Is doubtful if the rank and file of
the People's party will ever consent
to make any concessions at all to the
silver people, If such talk as this con-
It is plain that they will not con-
cede both the platform and the can-
didates, under any circumstances, at
any time, or to avoid any kind of an
anticipated catastrophe. The Populists
would have more confidence in the sin-
cerity of the free silver people if they
"With Free and I'nlimited Coinage of Gold and Silver
we will Clear Away our Public Debt Before the Close of
lliese Were Uttered by the President Just After He
had Signed the Bill Demonetizing Silver. In Other Words,
He did not Know that the Bill which lie Signed had for
its Object the Destruction of One-half of the Debt-Faying
Money of the Country. Yet Wall Street Wolves-Tell I s
the Demonetization Act was not Sneaked Through Con-
gress by John Sherman and his Co-conspirators from
IT'S THE PROGRAM.
SO THINKS A DEMOCRATIC
<aj« that Grover Cleveland and John
hhermnn Will Support the Same Candll
date This Year —Nest President Wil-
lie a 1'opullst.
(From the Chicago Opinion.)
National politics have been taking
could hold one meettngThat"was"not ' f"c? .?hapo for tlle P831 few months
made up almost wholly of politicians, - at the tarlff Question promises to be
lawyers and place hunters.
We are willing to admit that the
action of some of our men who have
largely eliminated from the coming
presidential campaign, through be-
ing so completely overshadowed by
I . ,, . ... .. .. , , 1110 financial Issue embodying the re-
f , with authority is not eal- monetl«ation of silver at 16 to 1 and the
eulated to inspire enthusiastic ad-
miration for us in the breasts of our
free silver friends.
They have been approached, and per-
haps bled, by an element that is not
representative of the Integrity, sincer-
ity, and inherent worth and strength
abolition of the national banks.
tho silver party. T. II. Carter, chair-
man of the republican national commit-
tee, must naturally stand by his avowed
convictions and throw his influence In-
to the scale for silver. Tom Reed has
never taken a position on the question
whero he could bo counted, while Me-
Klnley already scents the new arrange-
ment of party lines, and is speaking up-
on both sides of the issue. The nomi-
nation of Governor Morton will make
many heart burnings, especially when
it It known to be at the dictation of
Wall street, with ten millions behind
it and double that amount if necessary,
all of which was made by tho syndicate
who sold Cleveland's bonds. The head-
quarters of the Bimetallic Union is in
this city and is in charge of Edward B.
Light, secretary, and Hon. H. F. Bar-
tine, editor of the National Bimetallist.
They are doing a vast amount of mis-
sionary work and disseminating the
Many indications point to a general silver doctrine through an imtnenst
smashing of party lines and the union
of men from all parties, who think alike
on the financial question, under a new
party banner. That the gold standard
leaders will control both the republic
of the Populist party. In time this will and democratic national conventions
be remedied by retiring some of those does not permit of a doubt, and while
men to private life. For tho present they may attempt to deceive the people
we have got to make the best of tho as usual by a straddle, those old meth-
situatlon. ods will no longer be effective, and
i Willie we will make no predictions as when the lines are fairly drawn It la
to the success of uniting tho anti-gold not Improbable that Grover Cleveland
bug elements on one presidential tick- "id John Sherman will be found stand-
et, we do say that if it fails it will bo 'ng upon the same jlatforin and sup-
principally 'on account of trigger- porting Governor Morton of New York
mouthed Populists and free Bllverltes for president, who Is now reasonably
whose egotism leads them to rush into sure to receive tho republican nomina-
print with a lot of predictions, precon- Mon a' ti1® demand of Wall street, while
certed plans, and balderdash that is 'he democratic party is liable to be ab-
calculated to disgust the rank and fila
of the People's party.
If the so-called leaders (Populists
and free silver) are sincere and honest
in their efforts to bring about this un-
ion, they should button up their lips,
eschew newspaper interviews and saw
Already too much has been said and
protests are coming from every part
of the country. This is unfortunate at
■this time. Every Populist should be
actively at work organizing and edu-
cating the masses. Instead of this,
doubt and discouragement comes from
these silly interviews. It Is not suffi-
cient for the men whose interviews are
sorbed in the extreme west and south
by the. populist party. Since the meet-
ing, Jan. 22, at Washington, of the sil-
ver men matters have made rapid prog-
ress toward the fusion of all tho ele-
ments who believe In a genuine double
standard and oppose a surrender of this
country to English domination In our
financial management under the popu-
list banner. It was there decided to call
a national convention to meet June £2,
at the same time tho populist party is to
convene, to Belect a presidential candi-
date, when It Is expected that confer-
ence committees will arrange a plat-
form and candidates that will easily
satisfy those two bodie3 and also all the
,,, , , republicans and democrats, who will be
published to try to take refuge behind vIrtually driven out of their respective
t -0 i pc aration that they aro falsely national conventions, which will al-
represented. They aro always falsely ready hav6 ma(lo nominations and
represented, to hear them tell it. Then adopte(! a gold platform in the face of
, .the,nam„° °! couslsteney evei strong and bitter opposition. All west-
1 hero is no reason ern republicans and democrats also
submit to them?
in the world to be given but that to
satisfy their inordinate egotism.
If the plutocratic papers would pub-
lish the Interviews correctly them
might bo no harm in it. But they nevei
do. Then, we again ask, why submit
to being interviewed?
When the national committee is re.
southern democrats, who are opposed
to reduction in value of the silver dol-
lar will have no place to go but to the
new party, and In most cases will con-
trol the party machinery west of the
Mississippi and south of Mason and
Dixon's line. Consequently, in those
states both of the old parties will be
constructed, as it will be this year, each Placed in the attitude of bolters and
candidate should be required to sub-
mit to a cranial examination, and only
men who have tho bump of self-es-
teem ordinarly developed should bu
placed in any prominent position. Ws
?ay this in all seriousness.
It is not so much the weakness ol
our national committee and the silver
the populists assured of every electoral
vote in all of those states, thus making
It incumbent upon them only to carry
Indiana and Michigan in order to win
the election, both of which states have
Blways retained a strong greenback sen-
timent. Republican and democratic
Bid in those states will accomplish that
much. In Michigan Mayor Pingree, of
m'n f!' >S .° us 'larm as their in- Detroit, an ardent free-silver man, will
| undoubtedly secure the republican
Vanity should never be mistaken for nomination for governor, and the gold
self-reliance, nor stubbornness for Btandard republicans will be compelled
mnnly courage. , to bolt. A fusion of the Pingree men,
In the meantime, while tho people silver democrats and populists for elec-
will necessarily doubt, they should not t°rs 13 assured, ivhich means their elec-
relax their exertions. The harder they llon- In In("ana the democrats will
work the more compact will become out Place themselves squarely upon the sll-
organization, and the better able we ver platform, and a fusion with the pop-
will be to withstand tho storms froir
without and within.
We admonish the people to relax theii
fears. Things are not half as bad aa
they seem. Almost all this trouble
comes from a weakness to be inter-
viewed. There is no serious danger
threatening tho Populist ranks. Let
U3 go to work and have an effective
organization in every township and
county. Send your truest and best
men to all your conventions. Keep
ulists and silver republicans assure a
large majority In the state. In Illinois
the populists will hold their convention
first, and the program is now to nomi-
nate Governor Altgeld and Attorney
General Moloney, with perhaps Hin-
richsen, thus paving the way for a fu-
sion of all the free silver men in the
state upon one ticket. The candidates
who are to lead this formidablo party
comprised of men who have tired of tho
double dealings of both old parties up-
on the vital interests that more than all
thaUtrnone8,°t T 7" ^ ^ ^ affect'
that none but Popul.ste are sent to the ar0 Seaator8 Henry ^ ^
Populists are sent to the
national convention. "Trust in God
rado, long a leading republican, for
ieep y our powder dry,' and the president, and Senator Morgan of Ala-
Sa 63 °q cannot prevail against bama, Representative Crisp of Georgia,
J or some such man for vice-president.
MORGAN. Mr. Teller has always been a loyal re-
,, . , , . * ! publican, but has never failed to place
Municipal ownership of electric lights the fin,ncial question above that of
iTwrr, C°Uld tarlff" w°rk °n "nee has been
^ .^ 0rt, ota In" going on for months, and 8,000 newspa-
depemlent. There are others.
pers are already prepared to sustain
volume of literature, with which they
are flooding Indiana, Illinois and Michi-
gan and educating the people. At tho
same time W. H. Harvey (Coin) is still
actively engaged in making converts
through his splendid organization of the
Patriots of America. Loading green-
backers like General Weaver of Iowa,
Jed Spalding of Michigan, and Robert
Schilling of Wisconsin fully approve of
the movement, as do the populist lead-
ers like Senator Peffer of Kansas. Poli-
ticians inay decry the issue and ma-
chine men attempt to dodge and strad-
dle again, and once more fool the peo-
ple, but every move upon the checker-
board is forcing men who think alike
to bury all old prejudices and stand
together for their own interests and a
common country. Let the honest voter
take notice and govern himself ac-
cordingly. The next president will be
CIRCULAR NO. 2.
The Legion Is now rapidly growing
among the people; it is growing faster
than any organization in the nation.
Tho People's party must thoroughly
organize. If it will not, it will meet
with the fate of the Greenback and
Labor parties. If they want to preserve
the faith they have battled for on many
fields, It is of the highest Importance
that they should unite at once in the
Legion and seek converts in a regular
systematic way. It. is possible between
now and July 22d to convert the great
mass of the people who are dissatisfied
with the two old parties. We must
provide a plan to educate and instruct
them in the faith we hold. If we had
a Legion in every state, county, pre-
cinct and school district in the land,
as has been constantly recommended,
there would be no misunderstanding
about our platform and vital principles.
What we must do is to educate the peo-
ple; and we should at once, without a
moment's delay, organize. It Is no use
quarreling with each other; no use re-
viling at the faults and frailties and
mistakes that may be made. What we
want is perfect unity and organization.
It Is useless to criticise the action at
St. Louis. We must without sacrifice
of principle hold out the olive-branch
to those who believe as we do on fun-
damental questions, and keep our
"doors open to the North, South, East
and West" If we expect to win and re-
lieve the oppressed people. I have ever
upheld tho Omaha platform, and will
loyally do so until the St. Louis con-
vention establishes Its creed. I be-
lieve that we will agree without the
Iobs of our self-respect or the abandon-
ment of our principles. In order to
hold our faith we should organize into
a compact, united band. And if the
two million who have voted our ticket,
and the loyal following associated with
them fci their households, will organ-
ize and individually and by force of
perfect organization go into earnest
missionary work, we c?n convert
enough voters before July to win the
From every quarter come the glad ,
tidings of great accessions to our ranks. I
In some localities it amounts to a land-
slide. We can never gain in this grand
contest if we are divided ourselves. I
have had many grievances and have
been burdened with a heavy task. I
have resented bitterly unfair treat-
ment, but I am willing to bury it all |
and labor to organize for victory in
1896. The people should sustain their j
committees. They should build up anil i
encourage their newspapers. They j
should cheer the overworked, iliy paid j
editors They should be willing, one j
and all, to "divide their last blanket
and last crust" with each other, and re-
member that no great cause has ever
triumphed unless martyrs trod the hot
plowshares and unselfishness was ever
uppermost. We have adopted a new
form of membership for those who de-
sire It and who wIhIi to swell the fund
for propaganda work.
We send the certificate of member-
ship, a beautiful token, and Legion but-
ton to all sending $1.00; and with It we
enclose a. full set of supplies and com-
mission as Legion Scout if desired; and
a sample copy of The Nation, which
prints all orders and circulars. There
Is no red tape. Send for papers and
organize at once.
Wo want you in lino now; and the
moment you read this go out and drum
up ten people and organize and send
for charter. Always enclose stamps for
supplies. We draw no salaries, and
labor as a freewill gift. We aro al-
ready burdened with a load of debt In-
curred in this work. We want to es-
tablish a lecture bureau, and wo urg'
your active co-operation. Our mall Is
constantly Increasing and wo need a
typewriter for this great work. We do
not appeal to or beg of the people. It
is their work and they should help sus-
Tills Is a great struggle for human
rights. No more sacred contest was
ever waged In all the ages. If we are
alive, if we will awake, if we will
arouse from slumber, and each one do
his whole duty—If we are a band of
freedom, united in fraternity—we can
restore liberty and bring back pros-
perity. We are In the ruthless hands
of aliens and traitors to our nation who
sell our birthright daily. Our rulers
worship the golden Image, and humil-
iation and shame are the lot of our
A new Declaration of Independence
is demanded, and on our shoulders
rests the sacred work.
PAUL VAN DEKVOORT.
Itoyrottliig the t'npuftiAtA.
The "Times-Echo"of Eureka Spring.;,
"There is one peculiarity about all
Populist papers that's very noticeable—
they run practically no advertisements.
Perhaps advertisers think that a man
who will read a Populist paper hasn't
money enough to buy goods that are
We can hear some old party merchant
chuckling to himself as he reads that
The partisan merchant knows why
Populist papers have very little adver-
tising. it is a part of tho organized
boycott against people who protest
against being robbed.
Populist papers have just as large
subscription lists, and often larger, than
any old party paper published in the
same counties. Their readers have just
as much money to buy goods as do the
farmers and laborers of the two old
parties, and they are moro intelligent'
and likely to see a good point in an
But Populist papers are boycotted
purely for partisan reasons.
Most Populist editors do not expect
any patronage from old party sources—
and some are so Independent that they
fly at their masthead, "No advertisers
It requires courage to run a Populist
paper—but Populist newspaper men
are usually "built that way."
In view of these facts Populists gen-
erally are beginning to see the wisdom
of "tit for tat," and patronizing only
these business men who consider their
trndo worth asking for. By and by no
Populist will buy anything at all from
tiio merchant who boycotts his paper.
We must do it in self-defense.
SILVER IS THE ISSUE.
TARIFF WILL CUT NO FIGURE
IN THE CAM PAICN.
rti« Populists rooming | ,, as the (jreat-
1 I'owtr In American I'ollllca—Mure
of a sliver 1'mUtgt In 1 MB?—Shallow*
f t urning Kvents.
Day by day it becomes clearer that
the great Issue of 1896 will be, whether
the American people shall return to
the honest money of the constitution,
by the complete restoration of silver,
or permit themselves to be dragged to
their death and destruction at the
wheels of England's golden chariot.
That is the issue and there is no
blinking It, The senseless drivel about
"30-cent dollars," and "honest money,"
presents an Issue that is absolntely
false, and If the people will study the
question a little they will see it.
There is no question of a "fifty-cent
dollar" involved. It is a one-hundred
cent dollar or a "two-hundred-cent dol-
lar," which the gold dollar actually is.
The republican convention goes to
St. Louis, in that convention there will
lie a tremendous struggle over the
money plank. The extreme silver men
will have nothing less than free coin-
age at 16 to 1. Unless they get it, there
will doubtless be several spokes
knocked out of the republican wheel
then and there.
The democratic convention comes to
Chicago, but 110 one looks for a repre-
sentative convention. Two-thirds of
the democratic party are for free coin-
age. If the administration and tho
money power together do not capture
the convention it will certainty be a
grand triumph for the people.
If the sentiments of the rank and file
nf the party do not find expression both
in the platform and the eandMates.
there will not only be^gomn spokes
knocked out of tho democratic wheel,
but the hub will go too. That is, these
things will take place if sliver demo-
crats are true to their principles, as we
believe they are.
Then the populist party Is looming up
as an unquestioned power In American
politics. In the creed of this organiza-
tion there is much that Is good, and
it has in Its ranks some very able and
The more conservative of its ele-
ments understand that they cannot ex-
pect to win in the near future on all of
their issues. In order to win at all, they
must plant themselves 011 middle
ground, where the dissatisfied elements
of other parties can meet them.
Should they conclude to make bimetal-
lism the paramount issue, it may lead
to combinations that will revolution-
ize the country.
On the 22d instant a conference of
leading men was held in Washing-
ton for the purpose of outlining a pol-
icy. This conference was composed
of men from all parties and all sections,
and was a fair representation of the
average sliver sentiment of the coun-
The national executive committee of
the populist party has appointed a com-
mittee to confer with tho American
Bimetallic Union at Washington.
Thus events thicken and the tide of
silver sentiment rolls on.
The campaign of 1896 bids fair to be
the most momentous and exciting 1 of
any since the close of the war, and tho
"ghost" of free silver, of which we have
heard so much, will be the grand cen-
tral figure of the play.
CLOSING OF INDIAN MINT.
It Wm Part of tin
<'onaplri ry to
A correspondent writes from Ga-
lena, 111., as follows: Hon. H. F. Bar-
tine, Chicago, 111. My Dear Sir: In
your reply to Mr. T. E. Diamond in Tho
Bimetallist of Feb. 5, you gave two very
strong reasons why certain classes in
England were interested in the further
separation of the standards of value in
India and England, but overlooked an-
other very strong reason. England's
interests are three -agricultural, finan-
cial and manufacturing, its commercial
being well included within the latter.
The fall in tho gold value of an India
rupee had already seriously affected
English manufacturing by discouraging
commerce between the countries owing
to tho fluctuating of exchange and a
gradual rise of the same. This stimu-
lated domestic industry in India to the
detriment of Birmingham and other
centers of activity in England.
While the money power controls Eng
llberately at work to protect the Ma«-
che iter factory at the expense of those
In Calcutta and Bombay.
The English government of India l
very strongly In favor of bimetallism,
and some of the ablest bimetalllsts In
the world are. or have been, members of
that government. What they wanted
was the restoration of sliver, not Its ex-
clusion from the mint. The closing of
the mint was not a policy of desire, but.
as expressed by President Andrews,
one of "despair." National Bimetal-
CO A LITTLE SLOW
Silver Hie Only Question on Willi-))
Patriots of America Are 1 ntleil.
Editor The National Illmetallist: t
am glad that the great "rank and tile"
of the two old parties refuse to longer
be "nosed" about by tho leaders that
are responsible for the awful conditions
that now prevail, have taken the Ini-
tiative step to ally themselves with
the party that has already "declared"
Itself on the question that so vitally
affects us all, and called a representa-
tive meeting of the bimetalllsts of the
nation to meet at St. Louis at the time
of the convening of the People's party
In national convention. That is a step
In tlie right direction. Neither of the
old prrties will offer, either in plat-
form or as a candidate for the presi-
dency, anything looking toward the
"free and unlimited coinage of silver
at a ratio of 16 to 1," independent of any
other government intervention. If sucli
a thing should happen the "money
power" would defeat such a party at
the polls, for they have tho machinery
and can do It. Hut If all the reform
forces can nnd will iinito at St. Louis
upon a common platform, with a presi-
dential candidate who will stand upon
the platform with both feet, declaring
for the free and unlimited coinage of
silver at a ratio that it enjoyed prior
t i 1873. and then add the "initiative."
tho "referendum" and the "imperative
mandate" planks, such u party could
and would sweep the country, electing
a president and a majority of both
houses of congress. With such a plat-
form the Issue between the motiometal-
Ilsts and bimetalllsts would be square-
ly made, and the Populists and Prohi-
bitionists would, In the end, gain all
they nre now demanding, and the "peo-
ple" would rule; for if any representa-
tive dared to be recreant to the trust
reposed in him, lie would be calle'J
home nnd an honest man placed la
congress who would do the will of tho
people. With the "initiative" In tho
hands of the people, prohibition would
follow nnd the saloon that has been
such an awful curse, would be eliminat-
ed from the nation; railroads, tele-
graphs, telephones and express com-
panies would soon come under either
government ownership or control, and
the land question equitably settled.
And not only that, but the government
would issue all the money and the peo-
ple control it, instead of its being Is-
sued by private corporations and con-
trolled by them for their private inter-
ests as now. In that manner we would
soon have an ideal republic as intended
by ottr forefathers by and through tho
constitution, instead of a plutocracy as
There Is not a government on the face
of the earth excepting, possibly, Rus-
sia—that is worse governed than the •
United States; and yet no nation, like
ours, has the semblance of being gov-
erned "by the people." If the dear,
good people will now, in this year, lay
aside their party prejudices and vote
awhile for their own Interests, and all
stand together as one man at the polls,
the difficulty can and will be soon set-
tled. Yours for reform,
Our correspondent Is all right on tho
main idea the necessity for united ac-
tion. He makes one mistake though—
that of expecting too much.
There are at least ten mlllibn voters
In the United States who do not even
know what tho "initiative," tho "refer-
endum" and the "imperative" mean aa
thoso terms are used in our politics.
Where they are understood there aro
wido differences of opinion concerning
their merits. -National Bimetallist.
Trade reports from the commercial
centers always have prosperity just "a
[ coming," but halting on the way be-
j cause of the silver spectre ahead. When
[ tho country was thrown into a panic
in order to force the repeal of the Slior-
, ,, ,. . i man law. we wee to have prosperity
land s policy, when its interest Is at all | at once, after it was repeale(1. It
A Don't Cam Cltlion.
Don't care how the cotton sella—
Takln' of my ease,
Where the music of the bells
Jingles on the breeze.
Don't care how the country goes—
Roamln' far an' free;
In the woods there blooms a rose
Red an' sweet for mo!
Don't care how the citle3 roll-
Streak o' sunshine in my soul
Twinkiln' into song!
Don't care where my life Is led—
Still it's honey sweet.
Blue sky smllln' overhead-
Green earth at my feet!
menaced, England's official ear be-
comes very sensitive to the protest of
her other Interests. With the English
land owner, the money loaner and the
manufacturer all demanding a common
sacrifice from the British dependency,
it was granted with alacrity that a fur-
ther vantage be not granted to the
India farmer, that the money loaners'
tribute be not endangered and that tho
English factory be not put to a further
If every intelligent voter In the Un-
ion could read the Bimetallist from now
until election tho fate of financial
emancipation would be in no doubt. In
ignorance of finance lies gold's great
M. H. CLEARY.
Mr. Cleary is right in saying that the
English manufacturers were being in-
Before tho elections of last year wo
were most positively assured that the
business stagnation was owing to the
"craze for free silver," and that the
triumph of "sound money" at the polls
would bring a flood tide of prosperity.
"Sound money" won, but the prosperity
failed to materialize.
We have been plunged $162,000,000
more deeply into debt, and still pros-
perity Is away off in the dim distance.
But It Is always in sight, and it Is only
necessary to give Wall street the legis-
lation it demands, to bring it to every
poor man's door.
Destroy $500,000,000 of our currency
and add $500,000,000 to our interest*
bearing debt, and wo will be happy—
according to tho Wall street idea.
jured by the competition of East Indian |
factories, but he is mistaken in think- ] light is Breaking.
ing that the mint of India was closed on | A few months ago Judge Miller, see-
that account. ! ond vice-president of the union, made a
The suspension of coinage on public ; silver speech in western New York, and
account in India was the act of the East ! upon his return, said: "The ignorance
I Indian government itself, permission of | of the people upon the question of bi-
! the British ministry having first been metalllsm Is astonishing. The farmers
obtained. In doing this, the Indian I of western New York, as elsewhere, are
government was seeking to save itself j losing their farms but don't understand
from the disastrous consequences of a ! why." That seed was sown in fruitful
further and heavy decline in the gold soil. To-day we are receiving more
value of the rupee. The government j calls for literature from western New
sf that country « guiil scarcely g-^ da- I York than any part of this great nation,
Here’s what’s next.
This issue can be searched. Note: Results may vary based on the legibility of text within the document.
Tools / Downloads
Get a copy of this page or view the extracted text.
Citing and Sharing
Basic information for referencing this web page. We also provide extended guidance on usage rights, references, copying or embedding.
Reference the current page of this Newspaper.
Allan, John S. The Peoples Voice. (Norman, Okla.), Vol. 4, No. 33, Ed. 1 Friday, March 13, 1896, newspaper, March 13, 1896; Norman, Oklahoma Territory. (https://gateway.okhistory.org/ark:/67531/metadc116825/m1/3/?rotate=180: accessed May 10, 2021), The Gateway to Oklahoma History, https://gateway.okhistory.org; crediting Oklahoma Historical Society.