The Lexington Leader (Lexington, Okla.), Vol. 24, No. 52, Ed. 1 Friday, September 10, 1915 Page: 2 of 10
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THE LEXINGTON LEADER
EMPIRE ACCEPTS WILSON S DIC-
TUM ON SUBMARINE
WRITTEN ASSURANCE GIVEN
That There W.ll Be No Further
Slaughter of Innocent Non-Com-
batants Traveling On Mer-
Washington.—Strained relations be-
tween the United States and Germany
over submarine warfare apparently
passed lnio history after Count Von
llernstorff, the German ambassador,
informed Secretary Lansing in writing
that prior to the sinking'of the Arabic
his government had decided that its
submarines should sink no more liners
Count Von BernstorfTs letter which
revealed for the first time that Ger-
many had prepared an answer to the
Lusitania note which was about to bj
dispatched when the Arabic was de-
stroyed follows :
"My Dear Mr. Secretary:
"With reference to our conversation
of this morning, I beg to Inform you
that my instructions concerning our
answer to your last Lusitania note
contains the following passage.
" 'Liners will not be sunk by our
submarines without warning and
without safety of the lives of con-
combatants provided that the liners
do not try to escape or offer resist-
"Although 1 know you do not wish
to discuss the Lusitania question un-
til the Arabic incident has been defi-
nitely and satisfactorily settled. I de-
sire to inform you of the above be-
cause this policy of my gove-nment
■was decided on before the Arabic in-
"1 have no objection to you making
any use you wish of the above infor-
"I remain, my dear Mr. Lansing,
"Vours very sincerely,
' J. VON BEIINSTORFF."
The next step, it is said authorita-
tively, will be a formal communication
from the German government (Ms-
avowing tho destruction of the Arabic
and tendering regret and reparation
GRANGDUKE NICOLAS IS OUT
Grand Duke Nicholas, cousin of the
Czar and considered the most power-
ful man In Russia, has been super-
ceded in command of the army by the
20 ARE LOST ON HESPERIAN
VESSEL FOUNDERS WHILE BEING
TOWED TO QUEENSTOWN.
Some Doubt As To Whether Explo-
sion Was Caused By a Mine Or Tor-
pedo; Survivors Favor Latter
Queenstown.—The Allan liner Hes-
perian sank within a few miles of
(Queenstown after Captain Main and
a volunteer rescue crew of twenty-five
had made a brave fight to bring the
crippled ship into port.
The sinking of the Hesperian in
deep water probably will prevent an
investigation to determine whether
the disaster resulted from a subma-
rine's torpedo or from a mine. Pas-
sengers and crew assert positively
that the vessel was struck by a tor-
pedo, but thus far no statement has
been obtained from any one who saw
a submarine or a torpedo.
One first cabin passenger, six sec-
ond cabin passengers and six third-
class passengers on the liner Hes-
perian are unaccounted for. A wom-
an's body has been identified as that
of Miss Carberry, probably of New
Torpedoed Without Warning.
Captain Main of the Hesperian de-
clared the vessel was torpedoed and
that no warning was given. Major |
DISSATISFIED WITH HIS COUSIN'S
GERMANS CANT CAPTURE RIG/I
Prospect That Teuton Rush Has At
Last Been Checked.—Need the
Port For Winter
London.—The news that Emperor
Nichols has placed himself at the
head of his army which he announced
In a telegram to Raymond Poincare.
president of France, and the visit paid
by the French commander in-chief,
General Jotfre to the Italian army fore-
shadows, it is believed, in military
circles here stirring events on both
the eastern and western fronts tn
which the armies of all the allies wll
It is declared the Russians are hold-
ing their ground against the Austrian?
and Germans, whose advance*at mosl
points has been stopped and in places
are on the offensive.
Riga is at, the danger point, but the
fact that the Russians continue to oc-
cupy the town after the Germans have
advanced to the Dvina southeast of
Riga leads military w riters to the con-
clusion that the Russians feel reason-
ably sure of their ability to defend
the river and in time to. push suffi-
ciently far westward to relieve the
pressure on their forces on the shore.)
of the Gulf of Riga.
The immediate objective of the Aus-
tro-German campaign in Russia be-
THE EUROPEAN WAR A
YEAR AGO THIS WEEK
Sept. 6. 191*.
Russians attacked Germans on
left bank of Vistula, occupied
Stryj region and captured Forty
fifth Austrian regiment near Kras
German right wing checked near
Kaiser directed attack on Nancy.
British cruiser Pathfinder de-
stroyed by mine.
Germans levied war tax on cap-
France called out recruits of
French fleet bombarded Cattaro.
Sept. 7, 1914.
Austrlans retreated and Russians
closed in on Przemysl.
Allies forced Germans back
from Nanteuil to Verdun, German
right wing retitating across the
Germans defeated Belgians near
Melle and marched on Ghent.
Germans repulsed at Capelle-au-
Germans destroyed Dinant.
British submarine attacked Ger-
man fleet in Bremerhaven harbor.
American ambulance corps at
work in field near Paris.
. i Maitland, in charge of the ocean serv.
for American lives lost in the disaster |ces of thp CanBdiB„ ,.a(.lfiCt 8ai(1 the
If the nttack was made by a German
submarine. Even if the submarine
which torpedoed the liner subsequent-
ly was sunk by a British man of war
as has been suggested both from Ber-
lin and London, the Berlin foreign;
office is expected to send its disavowal
as soon as reasonable time has passed
with a report from its commander |mlralt offloe t
Once tho situation growing out of
the Arabic incident has been disposed
of, the response to the long unan-
swered American note on the Lusi-
tania will be dispatched and if Ger-
many's explanations and proposals in
this case are accepted by the United
States, both officials and diplomats
... . . , sea so heavy that no progress could
here expect the way to be clearen ^ ,lrui0
for a complete understanding between
the two governments on the subject
of freedom of the seas. In German
circles It is freely admitted that in
list of missing was likely to reach
twelve passengers and perhaps one or
two members of the crew. He added
that all would have been saved but
for an unfortunate mishap In launch-
ing one lifeboat in the darkness.
As soon as Captain Main landed in
Queenstown he proceeded to the ad-
make his report.
There landed with him thirteen offi-
cers and twenty-five men who re-
mained with the liner to the last. Two
mine sweepers and two admiralty tugs
attempted to tow the Hesperian to
•tly filled with
water, was so unmanageable and the
Berlin a hope prevails that such an ]
The American consul at Queens-
town, Wesley Frost, telegraphed to
the American embassy at London that
the admiralty authorities had not been
be followed by informed officially that the Hesperian
had been torpedoed without warning,
'•linn by the United States
interferences with neutral | b,,t ,hat ,he-v believB ,hat ,ho case'
Mr. Frost's message also said that
commerce with Great Britain and her
allies which prevent Germany Iron, forty-five unorganized Canadian troops
importing food supplies for he.- clvti were on board, most of them invalided,
Tho new American note to Great
Britain making representation against
the restrictions imposed by tho orden
In conncil, is almost ready to go for-
ward to London.
BERLIN TELLS OF GREAT LOSSES
Germans Claim To Have Put 1,100,000
Russians Out of Business.
and that the Hesperian had a 4.7-
inch gun mounted stern. The consul
hs been unable to learn of more than
two Americans who were on the Hes-
perian. both members of the crew and
both reported to have been Based.
BORDER SITUATION STILL VEXING
Heavy Reinforcements of U. S. Troops
Washington.—The rushing of heavy
reinforcements into the trouble zone
Berlin.—An official review of theI by the United States authorities Is be-
eastern campaign estimates that since j lieved to have had the expected re-
May 2 the Russians have lost at least suit of overawing the Mexicans whose
300,000 men in killed or wounded, and raids into Texas had become so per-
1,100,000 men captured by the Ger- ulstent as to give rise to rumors of
mans. I an organized invasion of American
The announcement follows: territory. While no further fighting
General army headquarters pub- was reported from the trouble zone
llslies a review of the results of ofTen-;"ear Brownsville, American troops
sive movements in Poland and Russia wer® on "le alert all along the Rio
since May 2, beginning with the battle1 <iran('e to chcck any recurrence oi
at Gorllce. Army headquarters esti* I raids Into 1 rxas by Mexican bands,
mates the strength of the ITussian 11 ',rus''> which in the annals of
troops v.-nlch were then directly en- Latin-American wars, would have been
gaged in that region was about 1,400,- considered a real battle, .10 Mexicans
000. In the fighting since My 2, 1,100,-
000 have been captured and a mini-
mum of 300,000 wounded or killed.
"This is a very conservative esti-
mate. The actual figures are surely
much higher, because the Russians
saved artillery by recklessly sacrific-
ing their infantry.
Thaw Asks Divorce.
Pittsburg.—Harry K. Thaw filed suit
were killed, the fighting all being
across the boundary.
Extraordinary precautions had been
taken by border patrol officers after
armed invasion. If the raiders con-
tinued to appear nnly in small bands,
however, It was understood they would
not be followed across the frontier.
News dispatches from the border
stated the situation had been relieved
by co-operation of tho Carranza mill-
asking a divorce from Ills w ife, Eve'yn tary authorities who removed their
Nesbit Thaw, charging misconduct: troops from the river bank at Cavazos.
with John Francis of New York. Tho
petition is very brief, covering less
than one typewritten page. In it
Thaw alleges that his wife was guilty
of misconduct with Francis at 31 West
Thirty-first street, New York, in De-
cember, 1909, and January, 1910, and
at various other times and places.
Francis is a newspaper reported. He
aays he has not seen Evelyn for three
Major General Funston reported
that General Nafaratte, the Carranza
commander at Mntamoros, again had
denied that Carranza troopers were
riding the Mexican border and pro-
posed bringing more Carranza troops
to the Mexican side to suppress dis-
orders. The Carranza authorities have
suggested a conference to arrange
comes clearer with the growing lnfli-
cations that the invaders need tne
Baltic port of Riga, not only as a base
for present operations in the direction
of Petrograd, but as winter quarters
in case the attempt to reach the Rus-
sian capital should be postponed until
Field Marshal Von Hindenburg is
experiencing great difficulty in brh --
ing the portions of the Dvina held by
the Germans. The current of the river
is to swift for the construction of pon-
toon bridges under the Russian ar-
tillery fire. As the rainy season comes
on, it will be more difficult for the in-
vaders to bring up supplies for their
Westward of Dvinsk and Vilna the
Russian offensive has now held the
Germans for more than a week and
to military observers those two towns
seem fairly safe unless the invaders
are to bring up strong reinforcements.
East and southeast of Grodno the Rus-
sians have taken tip new positions
across the river St. Chara and its
numerous tributaries and are protect-
ing the network of railways which run
eastward and northward to the inlerio -
of the country.
Since the outbreak of the war Grana
Duke Nicholas, cousin of Emperor
Nicholas, has been in command of the
srmies of Russia. Military critics have-
rated him as one of tlie ablest gen-
erals of the warring nations.
His main accomplishments were the
extraction of the bulk of his forces
from the Austro-German enveloping
movements in Galacia and later in Rus-
sian Poland, when ho again drew out.
his armies, this time from the'danger-
ous Warsaw salient.
The message of Emperor Nicholas
to President Poincare does not make
It clear whether Grand Duke Nicholas
has been superceded. During the last
few weeks there has been severe crit-
icism of the conduct of the war bj-
the Russian authorities. The minister
of war, General Soulkhomlinoff, re-
signed and the formation of a coali-
lion government has been under dis-
cussion. The source of dissatisfaction
however, has been principally the in- |
adequate supply of munitions of war
and so far as the cable dispatches from
Russia have shown, there has been no
criticism of the grand duke In this
Sept. 8, 1914.
Rusians took Nikolaieff and
Austrlans defeated Serbs near
Serbian Invasion of Bosnia be-
French defeated Germans on the
Severe fighting at Vitry.
British merchant cruiser Oceanic
wrecked on coast of Scotland.
Austrian government appealed
to Jews in Poland to fight against
Sept. 9, 1914.
British and French forces crossed
the Marne In pursuit of Germans.
Germans evacuated Upper Al
Battle at Rawa Russka.
Austrians evacuated Russian Po
Germans captured Maubeuge and
Japanese force of 20,000 landed
Force of 60,000 natives from In
dla landed in France.
Kaiser protested to President
Wilson against alleged use of dum
dum bullets by the allies.
British cruiser captured the
Noordam with German reservists.
Sept. 10, 1914.
General von Stein admitted de
feat by allies.
Beigians reoccupied Termonde,
Aerschot and Diest.
Russians Invaded Silesia and
Austro-Germans defeated at Lub
Russians suffered reverses In
Germans defeated by British In
Panic in Cracow; Archduke Fred
erick admitted loss of 120,000 men
British house of commons voted
to add 500,000 men to regular army
Pope issued appeal for peace.
Sept. 11, 1914.
German line west of Revigny re
treated, but captured fort near Ver-
French recaptured Muelhausen
Germans marched south from
Ghent with Belgians in pursuit.
Serbs took Semlin.
Montenegrins captured Folcha
and Joined Serbs in advance
Germans defeated Invading Fin
land force at Lyck.
Russians occupied Suczawa and
Austrlans resumed offensive near
President Poincare sent message
to President Wilson denying use of
NEWS OF THE
6TATE BOARD OF EDUCATION
ADOPTS THIRTY-SIX NEW
OKLAHOMA CITY NEWS EVENTS
What the State Officials and Depart-
ments Are Doing.—Items of In
terest About the State
Bridge Over South Canadian.
A preliminary contract between cit«
lzens of Oklahoma City, the South
Canadian river territory and the
Baker Manufacturing Co., of Sweet-
water, Texas, was entered into, the
fulfilling r-f which will assure the con-
struction of the bridge over the South
Canadian river. The contract was
signed on the part of Oklahoma City
by R. J. Edwards, Sidney L. Brock
and J. II. Johnston; on the part of the
South Canadian territory by Charles
S. Smith, James E. Wright and T. J-
Brown, and on the part of the Baker
Manufacturing Company by H. F.
The contract stipulates that Okla
homa City is to raise $15,000, the
South Canadian territory $15,000 and
the Baker Manufacuring Company is
to put up a good and sufficient bond
in the sum of $35,000. When all this
has been done a final contract will bo
Announcement of adoptions of
thirty-six textbooks for use in the pub- ^rawn^ up" and \he" wo7k~"started".'
lie schools of the state for the next
five years, beginning with the coming
The name of the corporation will
scholastic'year was code by the state "e the Oklahoma City-South Canadian
board of education. It is announced
by the board that the present adoption
will not conflict in any particular with
Bridge Company. The Chamber of
Commerce will Btart at once in tho
work of getting the necessary sub-
adoptions made a vear ago. The books | scriptions. The Baker Company, it in-
adopted were left on the open list understood, is ready at any time to
when the adoption was made last Put "P ltj bond for *35,000. The Baker
Company will control only $30,000>
Allyn & Bacon: Bacon's Vater-
land - - - .$1.37
Bcott, Foreaman & Co.: Knapp's
Virgil 1.08 .54
Benj. H. Sanborn & Co.: Brown
Latin composition 55 .27
Hessier-Smith: Chemistry, with
laboratory manual 1.25 .62
Hessler: First Year of Science,
with laboratory manual 1.30 .65
American Baok Co.. Hart's Es-
sentials in .-.merlcan History.. 1.35 67
Van Tuyl's Complete Business
Arithmetic 90 .45
World Book Co.: Elston-MaeMul-
lan: The Story of the Old World .51 .27
Supplementary Header for
Fourth and Fifth Grades: "Sure
Pop and the Safety Scouts"... .35
Ritchie: Human Physioligy 60 .30
King. Hall & Co.: Prokosch Ger-
man for Beginners 91 ,47
Bilver, Burdett .v I'o. Bullock's
Elements of Economics 1-00 .50
Evans & Duncan's Farm Life
Readers, Book IV 35 .17
Book V 10 .20
D. C. Heath & Co.: Sanford &
Erown: Highschool Grammar., .63 .31
MacMillan Co.: Davenport: Ele-
ments of Zoology 97 .48
Row, Peterson Co.: Elementary
PhycholoK.v. Harvey 1.04 .52
History Stories of Other Lands:
Book 1—Tales from Far and
Book 2-~Tales of Lonp Ago 40
Book 3—The Bepinrters 50
Book 4—Lord and Vassal 50
Book 5—The New Liberty 60
Book 6—The Modern World CO
Ginn & Co : Bergen & Caldwell's
Introduction to Botany 1.32 .66
Cheyney's Short History of
England , 1-32 .66
Keller & Bishop's Industrial
and Commercial Geography.. .94 .47
Hudson Shakespeare (14 vol-
umes) 28 each
Southwestern Publishing Co.:
Complete Text, parts 1. 2, 3... .80 .40
Introductory Text, part 1 50 .25
Intermediate Text, part 2 25 .13
Advanced Text, part *3 .25 .13
Blanks, to accompany above:
Introductory Course, part 1.. .80
Intermediate Course, part 2.. 1.30
Advanced Course, part 3 1.35
Bobbs-Merrill Co.: Spencer's
Modern Business l.aw 75 .31
Business Speller bv Kimball... .20 .11
W. H. Wheeler & Co.: Wheeler's
Elementary Speller for First
and Second Grades 25 .It
Wheeler's Graded Primer .first
grade) cloth 25 .It
Wheeler's Graded Supplemen-
First Header .cloth) 30 .1.
First Reader (cloth) 30 .11
Second Reader cloth) 40 .2(
Third Reader (cloth) 50 .21
Fourth Header (cloth) 50
Fifth Reader (cloth) 50 .21
Rand, McNally Co.: 1 lolton-Curry
Sixth Header 46 .2!
Chas. Scrlbner's Sons: .lames &
Sanfordl Government in State
and Nation 94 .4"
Woodruff Banknote Co.: Supple-
mentary Use and Libraries:
"Of Such is the Kingdom," by
i Atkinson, Mentzer & Co.: Sup-
plementary Reader for Sixth
Grade: "Great Names and Na-
Minnie E. I'untenney: Forget-
Mo Not Priflier for Kinder-
garten 25 .1
Chits. Bcrlbner's Sons: Supple-
I American Explorers 50
Early American History 50
Later American History 64
American Leaders and Heroes .60
Colonial Days 50
! B. F. Johnson Co.: Williamson's
! Supplementary Readers:
Life of Lee 32
Life of Jackson 36
i Life of Stuart 36
Life of Washington ... .36
Southern Publishing Co.: Ancient
| Med. and Modern History 27
I U. S. History 18
j English History 27
1 American History ^7
Atkinson, Mentzer «■ Co.: Pod«e s
Geographical Note Books 13Mi
I Chas K Merrill Company: Mer-
rills German Texts.
worth of stock, the extra $5,000 being
added merely as extra precaution
against the cost of the bridge going;
higher than expected.
Large Increases Ordired by Board.
Taxable valuation of the Sidney L.
Brook Drygtiods Company's stock of
merchandise was raised by the county
board of equalization from $49,000 to
$75,000, the increase being ordered
after the members of the board
leareJ of the price paid when the1
Rorabaugh sydicate recently acquired
a big interest in the corporation.
An even larger raise was made byi
the board in the case of the Okla-
homa Furniture Manufacturing Com-
pany. This concern was raised from*
$13,000 vo $75,000. Figures obtained*
by the board showed the company's!
stock of merchandise to be valued ati
$77,000, and its open accounts'
amounted to $50,000. The companyi
had returned its valuation for taxa-
tion at $13,000, and this was accepted'
by the assessor.
The board reduced the Lee-Huckins
Hotel Company's Improvements to
$342,000, a reduction of about $1(!,000.
Reduction In Freight Rates.
New rales for freight between Oil-
ton, Drumright and other points on tha
Oil Fields & Santa Fe railway and
other points in Oklahoma are now
effective, according to a tariff sheet
just received by Secretary Hf.rdie of
the Oklahoma Traffic Association. On
all merchandise in less than carload
lots the new rales are a reduction
of 3 cents per 100 pounds and on car
load freight of 1 cent per 100 pounds
under the rates recently applied.
The Oklahoma Traffic Association is
now compiling a table of the specific
rates from Oklahoma City to each
point on this railway compared with
the new rates from Kansas City, St.
Louis, Tulsa and Muskogee for use
by Oklahoma City shippers. This
table shows the advantage of shipping:
from Oklahoma City as compared with
Kansas City on first class freight to
be between 50 and 60 cents per 100
pounds and even more than this from
St. Louis. There has been p. good
deal of complaint about the high rates
to these points.
An Insuperable Objection.
N#ll 1 wouldn't marry the best man
Belle—But, you know, nobody ever
expects the bride to marry the best
Methodist Editor Dies.
Nashville, Tenn.—Dr. Gross Alex-
ander, editor of the Methodist Review
and book editor of the Methodist Epis-
copal church, South, died at Long
Beach, Calif., of appoplexy, according
to private advices received here. Dr.
Alexander served br one of the secre-
taries at the last six general confer-
ences of the church and was a mem-
ber of the committee that prepared
the commemoratice Centenary edition
of the authorized version of the Eng
Ush Bible in 11)11.
Use Much Cottonseed Oil.
Today the cotton fields of the
United States have to a great extent
replaced In our economic system the
olive groves of the Mediterranean dis-
trict. The oil Is a first-class edible
product and the cake after crushing
the seed constitutes an equally valu-
ible cattle feed.
Guided by Instinct.
If a chimpanzee Is wounded It stops
be bleeding by placing its hand or,
he wound, or dressing it with leave*
Delegates Names To Roads Meeting.
Acting Governor Trapp announced
the appointment of the following dele-
gates to the Pan-American roads con-
gress, which will be held in Oakland,
Calif., September 13 to 17:
George F. Noble, state highway
commissioner; Sidney Suggs, former
state highway commissioner; State
Senator Ben F. Wilson of Yukon, State
Senator J. Elmer Thomas of Lawton,
W. J. Milburn of Milburn. State Sen-
ator C. F. Barrett of Oklahoma City,
Representative J. E. Lemon of Nash,
Cyrus Avery of Tulsa, C. O. Johnson
of Durant, T. P. Martin, Jr., of Okla-
homa'City, Robert Scivally of Ard-
more, D. P. Marum of Woodward, C.
H. Hyde of Alva, E. B. Guthrie of Sal-
lisaw, J. F Darby of Muskogee, John
Whitehurst of Sayre, J. H. McLaugh-
lin of Chandler, Klb Warren of Shaw-
nee. W. D. Gibson of Grove and Clark
C. Hudson of Oklahoma City.
Shrine Planning Big Ceremonial
Programs were mailed to the mem-
bers of India Temple, announcing a big
"get together" meeting and entertain-
ment on the evening of Thursday, Sep-
tember IB. This meeting will be tha
first meeting following the imperial
council at Seattle last July. At this
meeting preparations will be complet-
ed for a meeting to be held on Thanks-
giving Thursday, November 25, plan-
uad to be one of the biggest conclaves
and ceremonials ever attempted in anv
part of the Shrine jurisdiction in
The entire membership of Akdar
(Temple, Tulsa: Bedouin temple. Mus-
kogee, and the India temple of Oklaho-
ma City, comprising the three tem-
ples of the state, are uniting to make
this meeting a mammotn state affair in
every respect. This state meeting of
the members of the Mystic Shrine in
Oklahoma City will no doubt result
that hereafter a tri-temple ceremonial
will be held each year alternating be-
tween Muskogee, Tulsa and Oklahoma
Organization Will Protect Business
Protection against the efforts of itin-
erant merchants who come into the cit-
ies of the state to sell goods alleged to
have been slightly damaged but are
really of inferior quality will be the
first alms of the newly organized Okla-
homa Clothiers' Association. Mike
Jackowsky, of Muskogee, who was
elected president at the meeting at Ok-
lahoma City will tiure active charge of
this work. Only twjnty clothiers of
tho state outside of Oklahoma City
ivere present at the first meeting
Attorney General Gixes Tax Opinion
It is not necessary for county equal-
ization boards to notify taxpayers of in-
creases in property valuations by the
state board of equalization, according
to an opinion given by the attorney
general's office to C. E. Hall, county
attorney of Jackson ccunty. The state
board makes the raises according to
classes of property and not on individ-
uals, • and the county bo:«>d should
make the raises in exact conformity
with the direction of the state board,
reads the opinion.
Lessees Get Land In Alfalfa County.
No outside bidders were present
when the sale of school land in Al-
falfa county began at Cherokee, ac-
cording to information received at tha
school land department from members
of the sale force. Every piece of land)
offered for sale, with the exception of
oae tract, was sold to the lessee and!
at its appraised value. There was a
dispute concerning the lawful lessea
of the piece not sold. Sale of that
land had to be postponed until It
could be determined who held th
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The Lexington Leader (Lexington, Okla.), Vol. 24, No. 52, Ed. 1 Friday, September 10, 1915, newspaper, September 10, 1915; (gateway.okhistory.org/ark:/67531/metadc110690/m1/2/: accessed February 23, 2019), The Gateway to Oklahoma History, gateway.okhistory.org; crediting Oklahoma Historical Society.