Pauls Valley Sentinel (Pauls Valley, Indian Terr.), Vol. 2, No. 15, Ed. 1 Thursday, June 29, 1905 Page: 2 of 18

THE SHRINE OF AMERICAN LIBERTY
mn ess
GENERAL REVOLT
UPRISINGS IN RUSSIA ARE OF
DAILY OCCURRENCE—GENER-
AL STRIKES ARE REPORTED
"INDEPENDENCE HALL"
Thumbnail History of the Vnited States
By JOHN BACH McMASTER
Within a year from the day when
"the shot hear round the world" was
flred at Concord all semblance of alle-
giance to Great Britain disappeared.
The Continental army was in exist-
ence; Washington was Commander-in-
Chief; Bunker Hill had been fought;
the Colonial Legislatures had been
replaced by Provincial Congresses or
Provincial Conventions, and the Royal
Governors by Committees of Safety.
When matters had gone as far as
this the Continental Congress advised
the colonies to establish civil govern-
ment of their own creation, took into
consideration the resolution of Lee
declaring the colonies sovereign, free
and independent states, and appointed
a committee to write a declaration of
independence and another to frame
a plan of government for the United
States. July 4, 1776, the Declaration
was adopted, and between 177C and
1784 eleven states framed and put in
operation written constitutions and so
turned themselves from colonies into
states. Rhode Island till 1842, and
Connecticut till 1818 continued to use
their old colonial charters.
In July of 177C Congress took up the
Articles of Federation, or plan of gov-
ernment for the United States, and in
1777 sent them to the states for ap-
proval; but disputes ovej the owner-
ship of lands west of the mountains
delayed their acceptance till 1781.
From the first the plan was a failure.
Congress had no power to lay a tax
of any sort, nor regulate trade with
foreign countries, nor between states.
The states issued paper money, regu-
lated foreign trade, each in its own
way without regard to the regulations
of others, and by this lack of uniformi-
ty produced the financial, commercial
and industrial distress which wrecked
the Confederation. Business condi-
tions made an abandonment of the
articles necessary, and in 1787 our
present Constitution was framed at
Philadelphia. Eleven states promptly
ratified and in April, 1789, Washing-
ton was inaugurated at New York.
In 1790 Philadelphia became the seat
of government, and in 1800, Washing-
ton.
The financial legislation of the first
and second congresses split the people
into two political parties—the Feder-
alists, who supported Washington,
with Adams, Hamilton, Jay, Pickering,
and King for leaders, and the anti-
Federalists or Republicans, who op-
posed the administration under the
lead of Jefferson, Madison, Monroe
and Gallatin. Scarcely had the
parties been organized on domestic
issues whan France declared war on
Great Britain and opened her West
Indies to neutral trade, and our coun-
try entered upon a long period of for-
eign complication. Washington is-
sued a proclamation of neutrality
(1793) and our merchants rushed to
the French West Indies. But Great
Britain seized their ships and the
Anti-Federalists attempted to force
Congress to retaliate. Lest this
should bring on war Washington sent
Jay to London to negotiate our first
commercial treaty with Great Brit-
ain. This treaty offended France, who
rejected our new minister, demanded
tribute and so insulted us that an
army of volunteers was raised, coast
defenses erected, the Navy depart-
ment created, and a naval war waged
from 1798-1800. From 1801 to 1803
there was peace in Europe, and during
these years our trade declined; a
wave of population swept westward;
Ohio was admitted as a state; Jeffer-
son was elected president; Louisiana
was purchased from France and war
renewed in Europe.
As nearly all western Europe soon
became tributary to Napoleon, our
country became the great neutral
ocean carrier. An immense trade was
developed which Great Britain at-
tacked with orders in Council and Na-
poleon with decrees. Nothing was
left but fight for our neutral rights or
abandon the sea. Jefferson chose the
latter and began retaliation by a sys-
tem of trade restrictions, which ended
with war in 1812.
The loss of our neutral trade and
the war brought on a period of busi-
ness reorganization, depression, hard
times and caused such distress that
hundreds of thousands of people left
the seaboard and hurried to the far
West of that time. As a consequence,
LATEST TROUBLES SPRING UP AT ODESSA
between 181G and 1821, Indiana, 111!
nois, Alabama, Mississippi and Mis-
souri entered the Union as states.
The great events from 1816 to 1825
were the purchase of Florida and the
settlement of our boundary from the
Gulf of Mexico to the Pacific (1819);
the establishment of the forty-ninth
parallel from Lake of the Woods to
the Rocky mountains as part of the
northern boundary (1818); ^ the Mis-
souri Compromise (1820); announce
ment of the Monroe Doctrine (1823)
and the rise of the West.
The issues growing into importance
were the removal of the Indians from
the Southern states, the use of the
public lands and the money derived
from their sale, the building of roads
and canals at Federal expense, tariff
for protection and a sound currency.
On these the two parts of the old Re-
publican party took sides and became
rival parties, known after 1834 as
Whigs and Democrats.
Annexation of Texas led to war
with Mexico and a further expansion
of our territory. The effort to provide
New Mexico and Utah with territorial
governments brought on the free-soil
struggle and the compromise of 1850;
the Kansas-Nebraska contest pro-
duced the Free Soil and Republican
parties and made slavery the ruling
political issue to 1860. Out of the
war for the Union came four classes
of issues—our claims on Great Britain
for damages caused by cruisers fitted
out in her ports, abolition of slavery
and the thirteenth, fourteenth and fif-
teenth amendments, the reconstruc-
tion acts and the great bonded and
floating debt. While these issues
were in process of settlement our
country again entered a period of
great industrial, agricultural and min-
ing development; the Pacific railroads
were built, the Middle West and the
Northwest were settled, great corpora-
tions came into existence and finan-
cial, industrial, labor and commercial
problems became the issues of the
day. The acquisition of Hawaii and
the results of the Spanish war expand
ed our territory to the doors of China
and gave us new problems in govern-
ment.—Nqt* York World.
Company of Cossacks Repulsed by
Armed Workmen—Meager Reports
From Poland Uprising—Estimated
Number of Dead Is 500
ST. PETERSBURG: The wave of
disorder rolling over Russia has ap-
peared at Odessa, where a general
strike, accompanied by bloodshed and
disorder, commenced. There were
several collisions between the mili-
tary and strikers, in two of which vol-
leys were fired by the troops. No re-
port of the extent of the casualties
has been received, the official state-
ment dealing only with the initial ac-
count, declaring that two persons
were killed.
There was another encounter, and a
number of attacks were made on indi-
vidual policemen. A press dispatch
received here says that 400 armt-^
workmen barricaded a suburb and re-
pulsed the attack of a company of
Cossacks. Reinforcements of three
companies of Cossacks were sent tu
the suburb, but the result of their at-
tack on the strikers is not yet known.
There is little news from Poland,
but copies of the Lodz Gazette giving
an account of the demonstrations aie
eagerly read. A telegram to the of-
ficial agency gives the number of
killed and those who died of their
wounds on the 23rd as 164. It adds
that others were killed on the 24th
and 25th, and that the complete num-
ber of victims can rASt be stated defi-
nitely. Other accounts give a total
estimate of 500 dead at Lodz.
The mobilization which has begun
will affect chiefly the cities un-
touched by the earlier mobilizations.
At Keiff, it is announced, the mobili-
zation will include reservists of all
classes from 1S91 to 1904.
DID NOT TESTIFY
Senator Mitchell Was Not Called in
Celebrated Land Case
PORTLAND, ORE.; United States
Senator Mitchell did not bear testi-
mony for himself in his struggle for
honor and perhaps for liberty in the
land fraud cases. The long case has
practically come to a close. The
court room was crowded when the
last day's session opened, many being
drawn by the story that the aged sen-
ator would take the stand and, by
his own word, attempt to disprove the
testimony of his former partner,
Judge A. H. Tanner, and his former
private secretary, Harry C. Robert-
son. But all these were disappointed
and surprised, for the case of the de-
fense was rested within an hour after
the court had been called to order.
New Company Formed
SOUTH MCALESTER: The Choc-
taw Railway and Light company has
been chartered here with a capital
stock of $500,000. It will take over
the Indian Territory Traction com-
pany properties and prevent the ap-
pointment of a receiver, as was asked
by the minority stockholders some
time ago. The new concern is con-
trolled by Chicago capitalists, who
are the minority people of the traction
company, having forced the majority
Interest into a sale. The taking over
of the property concludes the fight
which has been carried on for some
time between those interested in the
company.
The theatrical lawyer is always
looking for a show case.

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Pauls Valley Sentinel (Pauls Valley, Indian Terr.), Vol. 2, No. 15, Ed. 1 Thursday, June 29, 1905, newspaper, June 29, 1905; Pauls Valley, Indian Territory. (https://gateway.okhistory.org/ark:/67531/metadc110254/m1/2/ocr/: accessed March 21, 2019), The Gateway to Oklahoma History, https://gateway.okhistory.org; crediting Oklahoma Historical Society.

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