The Moore Messenger. (Moore, Okla.), Vol. 2, No. 13, Ed. 1 Saturday, February 5, 1910 Page: 8 of 8

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EXPLOSION KILLS MANY
MINERS BLOWN TO ATOMS
MIME AT PRIMERO, COLO.
IN
DISASTER WuRST IN IISTffl Of WEST
Rescue Parties are at Work, But
There is Little Hope That
Any Are Alive—Most of tht
Victims are Foreigners
TO FIGHT FOR HIGH PRICES
Retail Dealers are Blamed for High
Cost of Living
New York.—There Is a widespread
understanding among retail butchers
here that the western packers have
decided to cut !n bulf their shipments
oi cattle to this city in an effort to
uphold the price of beef. The pack-
era denied It.
"So far as I know," said a repre-
sentative of Swift & Co., "no orders
t<> discontinue have been received. As
rimcro, Colo.—Over 100 men a|t*jfor a reduction lu shipments, that
believed to have been killed by a ter lcj[,e ••
"ti, explosion In the J"1*; Small dc8leri were equally positive
of the Colorado l*util A; it on coiupiiuj ,.
at 4:30 Monday afternoon. I 'at «"<' l""'k,,rK :,r" only "ttt klnK bl*
Fifteen bodies have been recovered and that If the boycott continues con-
nod rescue pc riles .ire making des cessions lu wholesale prices must
Urate efforts to reach the Interior come.
workings cut off from the outside bv The family trade In meats through-
the caving l"> of the main shaft. The Qut thfl r|ty C0!!linu,,a to dwindle and
bodies were literall> blown to plec*p
and unrecogniznble.
Three men were killed at the mouth
of the main slope by the force of the
explosion.
Both fans with which the mint- is
equipped are shattered and It was
prices continue to fall in consequence;
but as beef goes dow n, fish goes up.
Resentment against the increase of
the cost of living has thus far mainly
centered upon the packers, but an In-
lopendent. Investigator came out with
Impossible to enter the mine until | njrUrt5B which tend to show that In
they were repaired. Aa soon a* the; th(i better clas8 of tra(k, „t loast the
tans were repaired General Buperln- ' |lPr nbgorbg ,ho lttrger share of
•«
what he can make on the salt) of by-
products.
Aside from the quarrel between the
party entered by the main air shaft, |
but were unable to reach the main
abaft, which Is completely blocked.
The party returned to tht1 surface
Mi is mi three |LLS P(SS HOUSE
MAXIMUM STAGE OF FLOOD
REACHED THIRTY-ONE FEET
UNITED STATES SENDS II RELIEF Ftt3D
Great Distress Among Poor Who Are
Without Food and Shelter-
Soldiers Guard the City to
Prevent Pillaging
a
CONVICT MADE LABELS, COAL
WEIGHING AND SALARIES
GOVERNOR SUBMITS SIXTH MESSAGE
' Anhtony Introduces Bill Requiring
Foreign Corporations to Fur
nish Court With Any Data
It May Aask
VACCINATION BE COMPULSORY
Paris—The flood reached its max-
imum height Saturday, at 31 feet 1
inch and has begun to fall slowly.
sections above Paris give hope of a
more rapid subsidence.
While the most imminent peril is
past, the fall of the Seine Sunday
measured only 15 1-2 inches. At this
rate it would require a fortnight for
the river to reach its normal level.
Fortunately, tidings from the flooded j liul)]|can reaoluttons in the house and
In the meantime the situation In ! oHlute. tile passage of three house
Paris and in many places throughout ^ ^ the C0U,laeratu>n of a New
Guthrie, Okla.—Governor Haskell's
sixth message to the special session
of the legislature opening a way for
bin railroad tax bill, amendments to
the prohibition law and other import-
ant bills; the introduction of the rc
after securing live bodies which were ■ packer, the wholesalers and the re-
badly burned. taller, it is pointed out by shrewd
A party equipped with oxygen hel ,myers lhat nflthl,r the government or
mets replaced them and are seurch
ing for more bodiis.
Miners were rushed to Prlmero
from Trinidad, SJguntlo, Starkvlile,
tioprlt and Kitevllle, and are laboring
frantically to clear the main shaft. It
Is impossible to determine how far
the main shaft has caved, and It
may ba days before I ho shaft is clear-
ed and the total death list known.
There Is little hope that auy or
the men in the mine are alive. The
company clerk reports that 7!) safety j situation must be
lamps aro missing and It is certain deception. I he pa
a boycott can adjust the situation un-
til the men lu control ol! tho cattle
are brought to book.
"Where does the public get off?" is
the question asked by the skeptics.
"Ninety per cent of the fish on the
market is frozen and the eggs are
mainly cold storage. This does not
provide good ammunition for a boy-
'Tbe packers will not lose. The
looked at without
acker will kill less
beef; they will discharge many em-
ployees, and the cattle they do not
kill can be held for a revival demand.
Prices will drop but little and when
the nation gets hungry again, the
packers will be just where they were
before -in control of tho situation."
that that number of men are entomb-
ed. Many of the miners, however,
say that 150 are missing.
Most of the victims are Slavs and
Hungarians. Will Helm, electrician,
1.; known to be among the victims.
The camp is a scene of Indescrib-
able horror. While every able-bodied j
man is taking his turn with pick and 1 Debated in Congress
ahovel to clear the shaft, the women Washington.—That the increase lu
hud children, kept back by ropes,: ,he price of food products was gener-
lmve gathered about the mine weep- j at throughout the world, and was not
ing and calling wildly uimiii their j confined to tho United States, and
loved ones who have not been found.! therefore was not affected by the
Officials of the company state that j American tariff, was the contention
the disaster is the worst In the Ills- 0f Senator I.odge in a speech made
tory of western coal mining. A slm- in the senate. lie found in the in-
llar explosion in which 24 were killed crease of the gold supply and In the
occurred iu the same property Jan-1 increased demand of consumers an
nary 23, 1907. The bodies were not j adequate explanation of present con-
rrcovertd for weeks. j ditions, and urged that the tariff could
j not and did not have any effect on the
I price of necessities.
Free From Taxes
Purcell, okla.—That coal operators
who are mining coal in Oklahoma
will be free from operation of taxes
on the improvements In their prop
erty is the opinion of a judge iu the
Replying to Mr. Lodge, Mr. Bacon
called attention to the fact that when
the tariff bill was under consideration,
lie had sought to have the duty on
fresh meats reduced and he men-
eastern part of the state in which lie u<jned th(1 fact t|mt th„ presrnt rnte
holds that they will In the end revert (m fl.Mh me#t w.ls lowe,. than in the
to the Indian and arc not, therefore, | j->jn« |0y jaw
taxable. i ___
Reward For Hendricks i Ne3r° Public Librnr>'
Guthrie, Okla.—Three hundred dol- Guthrie, Okla.—The negroes of
lars reward wes offered Monday by j Guthrie can boast of one thing that
Governor Haskel for the capture of the negroes of no other city can
Will Hendricks, the Choctaw Indian : ooast of, that is a public library sup-
outlaw who is wanted In Oklahoma , ported by the city. This is ti first
for killing his father at lloff four j ciass library in every particular, with
years ago. Hendricks was arrested I hII attendance that any other library
last year on a train in Texas, but j has, with books and p( rlcdlcrtls of
broke jail at Paris and escaped. ! all oln-ses. shades and grades.
the country shows little Improvement
Indeed, the ravages of the flood with-
in the city seemed actually to in-
crease Sunday. The water was higher
in some of the streets, while the sit-
uation at the Inundated towns be-
tween Paris and St. Germain was dis-
tinctly graver.
A stream of water twelve feet deep
was rushing through Gennevlilleres
and Colombes making the work of res-
cue and succor more difficult than be-
fore. Several houses collapsed, and
many persons were taken off the
rooffs of their homes where they bad
been clinging for days.
Hundreds arc reported without food
or shelter and an army of troops and
civilians are working relentlessly It
the flooded territory, bringing succor
to the distressed and dis^ribut ng pro-
visions by boats to the thousands of
marooned victims, who refused to
quit their homes. Within tht- city it-
self are great throngs of sightseers.
Although there is n ointention on
the part of the government to declare
martial law the completely sub-
merged districts, such as Javei, are
in the hands of the military to pre-
vent pillaging. The soldiers have or-
ders to make short work of criminals
caught in the act of looting. Thus far
there has been no such cases within
the city, but the danger is great, as
the french usually keep their money
and valuables In their homes.
Outside of Paris, however, many de-
ploraole instances of looting have
been reported. A band of thieves has
been at work in the vicinity of Char-
enton, but the soldiers have been
shooting them at sight.
The papers recount many deeds of
heroism ou the part of priests at Al-
fm-tville, who continued the work of
icscue when the soldiers, jackles and
firemen, after several days without
rest, had become exhausted. Sisters
cf charity rowed to houses, giving as-
sistance in several cases of starvation.
Besides aid distributed directly by
the government and the municipality,
more than $250,000 from the fund
raised by the newspapers has been
handed over to the various relief so-
cieties and to the local authorities of
tho towns and villages near Paris.
The press refers gratefully to the
spontaneous help coming from abroad
and makes particular mention of the
evidence of sympathy from the U. S
Jerusalem and natural gas preserva-
tion questions were the features of
thill! legislature Monday.
Some doubt arising as to the exact
completeness of a New Jerusalem res-
olution. Senator Russell introduced
his original New Jerusalem bill to
make doubly sure of filling all legisla-
tive requirements in order to get his
question submitted to the people. Sen-
ator Davis discovered an alleged "jo-
ker" in the 1909 wis pipe line bill and
introduced to correct this.
House bills passed finally were;
Representative Harrison's bill requir-
ing that all convict made goods be so
labeled before offered for sale in Ok-
lahoma; Representative Boyle's bill,
requiring the weighing of coal, at
mines, when paid by the ton, before
it is screened or loaded on railroad
cars; and Representative Durant's
bill appropriating $1,140 for deficien-
cies in salaries of district judges.
The house defeated the Wortman
bill, in reality the Harrison substi-
tute, empowering commission govern-
ed cities to fix in their charters the
number of members and methods of
election of city school boards, by a
tie vote of 42 to 42.
Of the house bills introduced Mon-
day the most important is by Repre-
sentative Anthony, of Stephens coun-
ty, proposing to require foreign cor-
porations doing business in Oklahoma
to furnish practically any data that
a court may desire in cases which the
state is interested in. Tho hill Is as
follows: "It is hereby made the duty
of each and every corporation doing
business in thr- state of Oklahoma in
any action pending In any court of
record within the state, wherein the
state of Oklahoma or any of its offi-
cers iu their official capacity, are par-
ties, upon the application of said state
or said officers, and upon the order
of the presiding judge of said court,
for which authority is hereby invest-
ed upon reasonable notice, at a time
anil place within the state to be fixed
by said court, to cause to appear for
examination and inspection any of its
officers, agents, books and papers.
"The refusal of any such corpora-
tion to comply without just excuse to
the order above, shall constitute a
forfeiture of its right to do business
in the state of Oklahoma."
Special Session May Make Vaccina-
tion Ordinances Possible
Guthrie, Okla.—In a bill prepared
for consideration at the special t-es-
3lon of the legislature, the mayor and
council will be constituted the board
of health for municipalities, with pow-
er to make such orders deemed neces-
sary to stop or prevent contagious
diseases. The measure Introduced
by Senator Hoy Stafford, of Oklahoma
City, is drafted along lines suggested
by District Judge O. W. Clark, who
recently declared the Oklahoma City
council and board of health without
authorit to compel school children to
be vaccinated. The court ruled that
children not vaccinated could not be
barrel from attending classes.
The proposed bill Is an amendment
to the existing health laws of the
state and the new matter which will
be introduced follows:
"And the mayor ana council of any
such city (that is, a city of the first
Roddie Appeals to Supreme Court
Guthrie, Okla. -Senator Reulu n
Roddie has filed In the supreme court
an appeal from the decision of Secre-
tary of State Bill t'ross, holding the
initiative petitions for the submission
of the woman's suffrage amendment
to the constitution, insufficient.
To Have Corrmission Government
Bartlesville, Okla.—Following ngi- I the past three years
Lawton Hotel Costs $100,000
Lawton, Okla.—La\vton.s new $ 100,-
000 hotel, to be known as the "Mid-
land," was opened fcr business Mon-
day. Its doors were thrown open to
tho public for the first time Sunday
evening for a public reception. The
hotel is owned uy G. II. Block, of Law-
ton, and Henry Shaefer, of El Reno,
and lias been under construction for
Business trou-
Farmers Will Have Dinner
Tulsa, Okla.—A feature of the
Farmers' Institute which meets In
Broken Arrow for two d ays beginning
February 12, will be n dinner to the
farmers and their wives, served by
the domestic science department oi
the Haskell state school at Broken
Arrow.
DILLON C. LESTER
Who, As Assistant State Printer, Is
One of the Popular Officials
at Guthrie
Maben Trial Begins
Shawnee, Okla. Trial of ex-Judge
Maben on the nine'eounts which re-
main against him bezan Monday in the
district court at Tecumseh l.-efore
Judge Stilwell Russell of Ardmore.
Eight of the indictments as returned
by the grand jury were for accepting
bribes, and the ninth was on a charge
oi embezzlement.
School Census Completed
Guthrie, Okla. The final figures on
class) shall have the power, and are
hereby authorized to pass, make and
enforce ordinances, rules and regula-
tions to prevent and suppress the in-
fection, Introduction, spread and ex-
istence of smallpox, or any and all
contagious and infectious diseases in.
the city, and shall have the power and
are hereby authorized, when in their
opinion, it is necessary for the public
health and safety, to pass ordinances
and regulations requiring of all per-
sons in such cities the mandatory
use and application of any known
and recognized preventive for infec-
tion, introduction or spread of small-
pox or any other contagious disease,
and provide for the enforcement, and
enforce, such ordinances, rules and
regulations, and provide penalties for
violations thereof: and further to re-
quire such ordlnaees, rules and reg-
lations, mandatory use and applica-
tion of such preventives, as a condi-
tion upon the attendance or entrance
to any public nchool or gathering in
such city.
Such ordinances, rules and regula-
tions, may be enforced for a distance
of live miles around said city."
Money to School Children
Guthrie, Okla.—The state board
land commission Thursday appovtion-
d one dollar each to the 514,478
school children cf OU'tfh.inia.
QUASHED
IUDGE HOLDS SECTION OF BIL*
LUPS LAW UNCONSTITUTIONAL
WEST SAYS CASE WILL BE APPEALED
Caldwell's Activity Held Void Because
of Incomplete Statute—Judge
Maben Declined t0 Make
Any Statement
Shawnee, Okla.—Nine indictments
I gainst Former District Judge W. N.
Maben, eight charging bribery and
one charging embezzlement, trere
quashed by District Judge Stilwell S.
Russell of Ardmore at Tecumseh
Tuesday, ou the ground that that sec-
tion of the Billups prohibition law
which confers certain powers upon
state enforcement attorneys coequal
with county attorneys is unconstitu-
tional. Attorney General West, Just
before leaving for Oklahoma City
Tuesday, announced that he will ap-
peal to the state criminal court of ap-
peals.
The presence of Fred S. Caldwell,
state enforcement attorney, in the
grant1 jury room during the delibera-
tions of that bodv while investigating
charges against Judge Maben war
the basis of the motion to quash,
which was filed by counsel for Ma-
ben. Tile motion held that at the time
the county attorney of Pottawatomie
county was qualified to conduct the
investigation, was in the county and
was ready and willing to act.
Four members of the grand jury
were called as witnesses Tuesday and
each testified to the fact that Cald-
well was In the jury room and exam-
ined witnesses. Caldwell was also a
witness.
The opinion by Judge Russell holds
that the constitution defines the pow-
ers and duties of the county attorney
and specifies the conditions under
which he may become disqualified to
act, and that the legislature has not
authority to enact a law that will limit
or abrogate those powers. The opin-
ion practically nullities the power
granted to state enforcement attor-
neys under the prohibition law.
•lud! e Russell also held that the
'aw giving power3 to the enforcement,
attorney was incomplete, in that it
did not create any sui'.i office, and
that if it aad created such cn nfft-e
It would have been unconstitutional.
He talked at some length on the sanc-
tity of th3 juiy room an 1 the stat-
ute's demand for 3ecrct proceedings.
Arguments for and against the mo-
tion to quash wen continued until tho
introduction of the testimony of the
jurors. Those examined wore: J. It.
Woods, foreman; T. C. Holt, of Sh«w-
nee; W. P. Brooks ,ot Shawnee; and
.1. C. Fisher, of Shawnee.
Judge llaben declined to make a
statement regarding the opinion.
tation favoring a commission form of \ hies delayed its completion. The hotel
government for this city, petitions I will be managed by Charles Steele,
were Monday circulated among the j formrly of Enid.
business men and citizens of the city
calling for a special election on tin-
proposition.
Will Get Interurban Line
Newkirk, Okla.—II will only be
question of a short time
To Validate Bond Issue
Ardmore, Okla. A hill has been
drafted and will be introduced during
the present session of the legislature,
j which, if passed, will validate the
until New- bond issues in Ardmore. The bonds
kirk and Ka> county will get the are for high school* 100,000, for school
Interurban line. The line now being j reimbursement bonds $220,000, for
operated between Arkansas City and | tire department and $35,000 for streets
Winiield will be ext( nded to Wichita and alleys. These bonds wete voted
; in March last year and have not been
I passed upon by the supreme court.
Special Session May Be Extended
Guthrie, Okla.—The special session
| of the Oklahoma legislature ended its
ma. which closed Monday, seems to [ eleventh day on Saturday, Jan. 29. It
have resulted in a material lessening ' has passed one bill, by Representative
this spring. Later on the company
expects to look to the south.
Seventeen Hunting Fatalities
Guthrie, Okla.-The shortening of
the quail-hunting season in Oklaho-
of the loss of life by reason of hunt-
ing accidents. Seventeen deaths re-
sulting from the accidental discnarge
Wallace, of Garvin, extending time for
payment of 1900 taxes from February
1 to April 1, and Governor Haskell has
of firearms during the open season I signed the same.
this year have been reported so far A total of 101 bills have been intro-
as against thirty-three last year, a
decrease of practically GO per cent.
Only nineteen serious injuries have
been reported
dttced, 50 in the house and 45 In the
senate. It is predicted that the spe.
cial session may continue a month
longer.
Charges Fi.jd Against Haskell
Guthrie, Okla.—Representative Les
ter A. Marls, of Pouca City, one of | t| ,. school enumeration reported to
the state superln'endfent, E. D. Cam-
eron, by the various county superin-
tendents, shows a total of 515,478 chil-
dren of school ego in the state against
500,298 for the previous year, a net
increase of 15,197. Of the total num-
ber 473.913 are white children and
41.560 colored children, showing that
only about 8 per cent of the school
eli lid ron of the state are negroes.
the Republican members of the Okla
lioma house, tiled charges Saturday
against Gov. Haskell with the special
committee of the house apointed sev-
eral days ago under a resolution Intro-
duced by Representative Durham, of
Tecumseh, to investigate the expendi-
tures and disbursements of public
funds.
The cha-ges involve Governor C. N
Haskell and payments of monies to
C A. Lawlr, prvate detective of Okla
homa City, Orville T. Smith, privato
law counsel to the governor, W. T.
Hutchings, a practicing attorney of
Muskogee, and who with Governor
Haskell is under indictment for Mus-
kogee town lot frauds, and others. A
second charge involves the msmbers
of the state banking board.
New Oklahoma Revenue District
Washington.—The treasury depart-
ment Saturday recommended estab-
lishing a new revenue collection dis-
trict in Okahoma and asked for $10,-
000 for its maintenance.
Hitchcock Complains
Guthrie, Okla.—Citizens of Hitch-
cock tiled a complaint with the cor-
poration commission asking thai
Rock Island train 753 be held at Enid
for a connection with the Rock Is-
land train bringing the papers and
mails from Kansas City and Wichita.
El Reno Bonds Sold
El Reno. Okla—The $50,000 in
bends recently voted by El Reno have
been sold to W. A. Mason of Chicago
who paid a premium of $2,304
Indians to Publish Newspaper
Muskogee, Okla.—An Indian news-
paper will re established here in the
near future, the first copy appearing
probably on February 15. ' Chiefs of
the Five Civilized Tribes and other
influential Indians are backing the
movement. The paper will be edited
by Augustus V. Ivey, of Still well
Cherokee. It will appear weekly.
Every department of the paper will
be printed in some Indian language.
The Cherokkee, Creek, Choctaw, Sem-
inole and Chickasaw tongues will be j intention of fighting the tax
represented. "through cattle" to a finlBh.
For Lawton Waterworks
Lawton, Okla. Following the dis-
pel of the city's bond issue lor $125,-
000 at a small premium, the city
council lias instructed City Engineer
Z. M. Scifres to prepare plans and
blue prints of the proposed water
reservoir and watershed including all
the lands which the city will need for
its enlarged water system. Notice
will be given all land owners sur-
rounding 'the present dam that the
city will either purchase at a fair
price or take through condemnation
proceedings all such lands.
Enid Boy Is Rhodes Scholar
Enid, Okla.—Ray L. Lange, athletic
lirector and instructor in mathemat-
ics in tho Enid high school, lias just
received notice that he haa been se-
lected for the Cecil Rhodes scholar-
ship from Oklahoma. The honor has
been conveyed to Mr. Lange through
Piesident A. Grant Evans, of the Ok-
lahoma University, throng* whom
Lange made application for the schol
nrshlp. It was thought for a while
;hat Oklahoma would have no repre-
sentative in the famous English
school this year, as all previous ap-
plicants had fallen short of the re-
quired qualifications for entrance.
However, the report, of the Cecil
Rhodes secretary and faculty of Ox-
ford which examined Mr. Linges' ex-
amination papers, which has just been
received, was favorable.
To Fight Tax Payment
Ti lsa. Oliia.—Cla!ln. 9 that they pay
one tax on cattle in the state of
Texas where the stock is raised, and
that they should not he compelled to
pay another tax in Oklahoma for fat-
tening tije same cattle, members of
the Oklahoma Farmers' ami Stock
Raisers' association in their annual
meeting here. Saturday, declared their
Bor.d Appeals to Criminal Court
Guthrie. Okla.—Ben Bond, given
Tulsa Bank Wants Charter
Tulsa, Okla.—The Exchange Na-
flve-year sentence from Pottawatomie j tional Bank lias made application tor
on an Indictment for bribing District I a charter. I he new Institution will
Judge Maben and other county ofli- have a capital ol $150,000 and a stir-
cers, has appealed his case to the
criminal court of rppeals.
Bond and B. O. Johnson were in-
dicted on six counts, Jan. 15. 1909,
charging them with giving $250 to
Judge Maben. County Atiorney Virgil
R. Biggers, Assistant County Attorney
J. D. Lydick, County Judge Iteasor
and.City Marshal Sims of Shawnee.
plus of $50,000. P. J. White, former).v
manager for an oil well supply com-
pany, will be president of the institu-
tion. It is planned to open the hank
for business in two weeks. This in-
stitution is established with the pur-
pose of taking the place of the Farni-
rs'Xational bank which failed here
December 13.
S. £. S. Come to Oklahoma
Oklahoma City.—Conditioned upon
Oklahoma City guaranteeing a bonus
of $800,000 within 30 days and a satis-
factory agreement with Morris & Co.,
the Schwarzchlld & Sulzbeiger Pack-
ing company of Chicago, has entered
into a signed contract with the Okla-
homa City Chamber of Commerce to
establish a monster packing plant up-
on lands acquired from the Stock
V'ards company in Morris addition to
Oklahoma City.
The contract was signed Tuesday
night by Ferdinand Sulzberger, pres-
ident of the company. •
According to a statement of Presi-
dent Sulzberger, the S. & S. plant pro-
loosed conditionally is to be equally as
large as the Morris plant, if not larg-
er, and will cost approximately $:!,-
000,000.
Will Fight Savings Bank Bill
Washington.—Senator Hcyborn has
taken a stand of lighting attitude re-
garding the postal savings bill. and.
it is believed, the measure will have
no little opposition.
Indians Receive Pay
Muskogee, Okla.—The government
paying party making the equalization
payment to Cherokee allottees has
been out three weeks and has paid
Out 4,141 shares. There are yet 30,-
000 Indians to be paid, and at the
present rate it will take lour months
to complete the work. The pay
party has found that they can get
more full blooded Indians to come to
Tahlequah than any other point to
get their money, and a second pay-
ment will be made about Feb. 14th.

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Simms, P. R. The Moore Messenger. (Moore, Okla.), Vol. 2, No. 13, Ed. 1 Saturday, February 5, 1910, newspaper, February 5, 1910; Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. (https://gateway.okhistory.org/ark:/67531/metadc109133/m1/8/ocr/: accessed April 19, 2019), The Gateway to Oklahoma History, https://gateway.okhistory.org; crediting Oklahoma Historical Society.

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