The Independent. (Cashion, Okla.), Vol. 14, No. 12, Ed. 1 Thursday, July 28, 1921 Page: 4 of 8
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LACK OF PACKAGE UNIFORMITY
MEANS MONEY LOSS FOR BUYER
Tfe KITCHEN BLACK UNO WHITE
!one glance will cool fou
-V_- tJr~- -W /-s
i 3 2W5/J
1 f x*
They Look the Same 8ize, but They Are Not.
Prcpm-.l l.\ the StiiN-s Depart-
nu nt of Agriculture )
Standard containers for marketing
fruits and vegetables nre of more in-
terest to the average citizen than he
generally realizes. Not only Is he de
frnuded frequently by the substitution
of abort-measure packages at the full-
measure price, which Is Inevitable If
the difference In the size of the pack-
axes Is not easily detected, but also
the cost of marketing Is Increased by
the greater expense of manufacturing
n large number of unnecessary s4vb-«
and sizes and by breakage in transit,
sometimes directly attributable to the
difficulty of loading odd-sized con-
tainers. These losses constitute an
unnecessary tux on the fruit and
vegetable Industry that the bureau of
tnarkets, United States Department
of Agriculture, Is endeavoring to rut
down by fostering the use of stand-
Old-Time Units Cause Confusion.
Local package units that came Into
use long ago are most largely re-
sponsible for present difficulties.
Such packages may have been satis-
factory when their use was confined
Jo a limited territory, but of late years
rapid transportation and the use of
special refrigerator and ventilator
cars have brought the products of
every section of this country Into our
great marketing centers, where the di-
versity of styles and sizes of contain-
ers have resulted in unnecessary con
There are in common use todnx
about 40 sizes of cabbage crates, 'JO
styles of celery crates, 30 lettuce
crates or boxes, f 0 styles and sizes
of hampers, 15 styles and sizes of
round stave baskets, ami market bas-
kets, varying In size from 1 to 24
quarts, whereas relatively few stand-
ard sizes would satisfy all the de-
mands of the trade.
The unfair competition of short-
measure containers has been another
unsatisfactory factor. Certain shrewd
packers have found that by slight
modifications in the shape of pack-
ages the cubical contents can be re-
duced substantially without noticeably
affecting the appearance.
Short Measure Package.
Commodities sold in these contain-
ers can be offered at a lower price per
package than those sold In standard
packages, but the price by unit of
weight is, of course, higher. Often
this has caused the general adoption
of the short measure package, and
there Is no end to this procedure, for
once the short measure Is recognized
as the standard a still shorter one Is
put out by an unseruplous minority.
The six-quart market basket, the
14-quart peach basket, the seven-
eighths-bushel bean hamper, and the
five-peck lettuce hamper are easily
confused with peck, half-bushel, bush-
el and 1%-bushel baskets.
Another factor which has caused
the addition of many unnecessary
packages is the lack of a unit which
Is accepted as the basis for all pack-
age standards. If a manufacturer
wishes to Introduce a crate into a pro-
ducing section normally using the bar-
rel Instead of using the bushel unit,
the tendency is to offer a barrel
crate or half-barrel crate. At the pres-
ent time the crates and boxes are be-
ing manufactured in sizes based on
the United States standard barrel (10f>
quarts) with its subdivisions, the
United States cranberry barrel (80
45-64 quarts) with Its subdivisions, the
weight bushel, the heaped bushel, and
the volume bushel. These different
standards are used because of compet-
Series of Crates.
The result may be seen by a glance
at the following table
Three Series of Crates Which Cannot Be
Readily Distinguished From Each Other.
Crates based on U. 8. apple barrel
1-barrel crate.' quarts 106
H-barrel crate do 62H
| titirrtl crate .. dO
<'rates based on U 8 cranberry barrel
1-barrel crate quarts 8'. 45-64
Vfc-barrel crate do 4311-12
1-8 barrel crate do 28 2V-32
Orates based on standard bushel:
t-b Ml *: < ra'e quart* M
IV-rbushel crate do
1-bushel crate do 32
% a standard unit of measure should
lie permanent, definite, and of fixed
and uniform value. The heaped bushel,
which Is lu common use, is far from
being fixed, and In many Instances
the heap has practically disappeared,
say specialists of the bureau of mar-
kets. A proper heap bun nevar been
defined by congress, and in those
states where an attempt has been made
to describe the manner in which the
measure should be heaped the phra-
seology generally is vague and Indefi-
nite. The heap has been referred to
as a cone, the base being the top of
the measure, and the height depend-
ing upon the nature of the t article
when piled "as high as may be with-
out special effort or design." Such
vegetables as sweet potatoes under
this definition might be piled so high
that the heap would be as large as
the measure Itself.
In view of the difficulties which are
necessarily encountered In attempting
to secure a uniform method of filling
or packing standard containers, It is
generally recognized that weight Is
the only really definite basis of sale,
and for that reason the pound or
hundredweight should be used where
this is practicable. An exception may
be noted In regard to pioducts which
are carefully graded as to size, in which
case the sales may be made satisfac-
torily by numerical count.
BUSINESS BASIS IN
SELECTION OF FARM
Many Serious Errors Made by
Young Men in Moving.
Know Only One Set of Conditions
and Are Not Able to Weigh Ac-
curately All New Factors
That Must Be Considered.
(Prepared by the United States Depart-
ment "f Agt lculture. >
Many farmers, especially the youn-
er men, in moving from one region to
another, make serious errors In select-
ing farms, not because their Judgment
Is naturally poor, but largely because
they know onJy one set of conditions
and are not able to weigh accurately
all the new factors that must be
taken into account, say specialists
of the United States Department of
Agriculture. Here the science of
farm management Is helpful, In that
from the farm-management view-
point the farm is put on a business
In doing this, however, the home
side of the question must always be
kept in mind. The farm home and
the farm business are Inseparable. A
desirable farm, from a business
standpoint, is nevertheless undesir-
able If It has no social or community
advantages. On the other hand, desir-
able living conditions are of llttJe or
no advantage unless accompanied by
a successful farm business.
A farm may have fine buildings,
good water supply, excellent roads,
and other such assets, yet If the soil
Is rocky, shallow, or naturally In-
fertile, so that its productive possi-
bilities are distinctly Jimlted, there
will be no adequate Income for en-
Joying the other advantages. More-
over. these physical limitations are
Enduring, while t • needed improve-
ments, such as buildings and roads,
can be added as means are provided.
PICK AND PREPARE BERRIES
Care Must Be Exercised by Grower
in Shipping Blackberries by
If a grower wishes to ship black-
berries by parcel post, he should ex-
ercise care In picking and packing
the berries. Carelessness In picking
nnd handling blackberries sometimes
causes more injury to the fruit than
does the treatment given while in
transit, say specialists of the United
States Department of Agriculture.
Success In shipping blackberries is
dependent largely on favorable weath-
er conditions and the way in which
the fruit Is handled In transit.
The shipping weight of a 10 quart
crate of blackberries is from 27 to 30
pounds, and the charge for postage to
points within the first and second
postal zones is from 81 to 84 cents.
The cost for crate and postage on a
10-quart crate of blackberries will
vary, therefore, from 58 to 04 rents.
It may he possible at times to ship
more than one kind of berries in a
crate, such as a combination ship-
BEST FEED FOR BABY CHICK
Careful Feeding Necessary in Order
Not to Upset Digestion or
to Check Growth.
(Pl^MUtd 11 e I | • ') itfttM I''-part- I
ni< nt of Aki i>' Jiture.)
Ha by clacks should not be fed for
from -4 to 30 hours after hatching, |
and will not suffer if given no feed i
until the third day. The yolk of the
egg which is absorbed by tlie chick |
when hatching furnishes all the nour-
ishment required during that time.
After the third day they should be fed
four or five times daily for the first
week or ten days, but they should 1#*
given only what they will eat up clean
each time. Overfeeding will do more
harm than underfeeding. Greater care
must be used not to overfeed young
chicks that are confined than those
that have free range, as leg weakness
Is apt to result in those confined.
The first feed should consist of
Johnnycnke or bard-boiled eggs mixed
with stale-bread crumbs or pinhead
►at meal, using a sufficient amount of
the latter to make a dry, crumbly mix-
ture. These feeds or combinations of
feeds may be used with good results
for the first week; then gradually sub
stltute for one or two feeds dally a
mixture of equal parts of finely
cracked wheat, cracked corn, nnd pin-
head oatmeal or hulled oats, to which
may be added a small quantity of
broken rice, millet, rape seed, and char-
coal, if obtainable. This mixture
makes an ideal ration, say poultry spe-
cialists in the United States Depart-
ment of Agriculture. If corn cannot
be had, cracked kaflr corn, rolled or
hulled barley may be substituted. A
commercial chick feed containing a
variety of grains may be used Instead,
if desired, and can be bought from
most feed dealers.
How to Make Johnnycake.
Corn meal, 5 pounds.
Infertile eg'i?s (tested out from sittings
or from an incubator;, 6.
linking soda, 1 tablespoonful.
Mix with milk to make a stiff butter
and bake thoroughly.
Note - When infertile eg^H nre not
available, use a double quantity of bak-
ing porta and add cne-lialf pound of sifted
When the chicks are from 10 to 14
days old a dry-growing mash com-
posed of the following should be
2 parts, by weight, of bran.
2 parts middlings.
1 part corn meal.
1-2 part, or 10 per cent, sifted meat scrap.
\Vhen the chickens are 8 or 10 weeks
old, add 1 part of ground oats and In-
crease the meat scrap to 1 part. This
You may grow for your neighbor
grains or grape shot, he also uill
grow grapes or grapeshot Cor you, and
♦ ar.'i will leap what he has sown.—
Pronounced Colors Prove Popu-
lar Fad in Paris.
Summer Frocks Made Up of the Com-
bination Which Has Been De-
clared Good Taste.
There is a run on black and white
this season. One bees it on ull sides
A good emergency dessert or sa ad 1U1(J m ,mrerom l.iri.Uu.vtui1a.-s.
may be untie witb any good Ratine uf t)u, su,.,.t.8!iful t.lltertalu.
11} h* a " s- meuts which hud ever been given lu
'orrespondent, was the
as a basis.
Lemon jelly is
Try It with tills
some lemon jelly,
a teaspoouful or [
two of peaches
cut In quarters, a
spoonful of orange marmalade and a
tablespoonful of pineapple preserve
with a little of its juice to top the
sherbet cup. Whipped cream may be
added If one has it, but it is good
without. Some of the same lemon
Jelly may be used as a salad with fish
at some other meal. Serve It on head
lettuce with a rich mayonnaise. Pea-
nuts are nice sprinkled over the top
of such a salad.
Creamed Onions With Parsley.—
Cook even-sized onions In boiling 1
water, adding salt as they are nearlj
cooked. Melt three tablespoonfuls of
butter, add the same amount of flour
for half a dozen onions, a half tea-
spoonful of salt and a little less of
paprika, stir until well blended, then
add a cupful of rich milk and half a
cupful of the liquor in which the
onions were cooked; serve poyred
over the onions and sprinkle with fine-
ly minced parsley.
Lamb Stew With Peas.—Take a
shoulder cut, cover with boiling water
and cook until tender, thicken with i
flour stirred with some of the meat j
liquor, add a pint of green peas and i
cook until the peas nre tender. Sea- j
son well and serve tlie meat on a plat-
ter surrounded with the peas.
Now is the time to put up the small |
fruits, crushing until well mashed i
and mixing with an equal amount of |
sugar. Stir until the sugar Is all dis- j
Black and White ball, which
recently at the Theater des Champs
it was Immensely brilliant and
everyone admired the black and white
walls and pillars, which made such an
effective background for the exquisite
and beautifully dressed women who
crowned the big theater.
in one lovely model white organdie
and black satin were combined with
great success. The whole front of
the dress was organdie—a series of
gauffered frills arranged in neat rows
with black ball buttons running right
down the front. This was an exceed-
ingly chic model, the i**rfection of
good taste and elegance.
One white model has short sleeves.
This is an important point. Influen-
tial dress experts assert that high
necks and Ion;; sleeves were to be "the
solved, then can In sterile jars,
on the cellar bottom or In the
chest where they will keep cool.
Grape Nectar.—l'ut a cupful of
sugar with a quart of water over to
boll. Cook ten minutes, cool, then
add the juice of three lemons, two
oranges, one-half can of pineapple and
a pint of grape juice. Let-stand about
three hours then serve iml with thin-
ly sliced orange on top of each glass.
Barbecued Ham.—Wipe two slices
of ham and trim off most of the fat.
Parboil the ham, turning once; drain
and put back into the hot frying pan
in which the trimmings, having been
minced, are tried out; add three table-
spoonfuls of vinegar, one teaspoouful
of sugar, one teaspoouful of mustard
and a few dashes of paprika. When
hot pour over the ham.
Though you have everything you like.
and riches come to you.
You still may bo unhappy, son. you'll
tlnd that this la true.
But you can fill your days with Joy;
get this; it isn't salve.
The way to be real happy is to like
the things you have.
When you ha\
cheese, too dry t
Ready for Its First Meal of Johnny,
cake or Hard-Boiled Egg.
mash may be placed in a hopper,
where It will not be wasted, and left
before the chicks at n!l times.
As soon as the chickens are old
enough and will eat whole wheat,
cracked corn, or other grains, the
small-sized chick feed may be discon-
tinued and the larger-sized grains fed
Instead. In addition to the grain feed,
they must be supplied with grit, oyster
shell, nnd charcoal at all times, and
the belter way Is to place these In a
hopper, hanging it in a convenient
place where the chicks may help them-
selves. If chicks are kept In confine-
ment, they must be furnished a liberal
supply of tender, green feed, like
lawn clippings, lettuce leaves, and
such other things as may be available.
Whenever possible, however, chicks
should be given grass range, when
they will supply their own green feed,
catch bugs, worms, etc. ('hicks that
are allowed to run on a grass range
This cool, comfortable and most at-
tractive sport dress of crepe de chine,
with bands of heavy wool embroidery,,
is one of the coolest creations imagin-
milady's hair the eyebrows will he-
tinted slightly with colored prepara-
tions. Probably faddists will resort
to extreme measures and appear in
public with vermilion or pea green
eyebrows and coal black coiffures, but
milady who would be chic—oh, la, ia f
"She will tint only the lower por-
tion of her eyebrows with a faint hue-
matching the color of her eyes. A
blue-eyed girl witb a hair line of blue
under her eyebrows would have eyes
that would rival those of any movia
queen. The tinted eyebrow accentu-
ates the color and shape of the eye
without coloring the upper lid as they*
do on the stage."
6!mple Summer Frock of Black Linen
and White Organdie.
only possible." But as a matter of
fact nearly all the best summer
dresses have round necks and short
sleeves, if my sleeves at all. Here,
again, good taste and common sense
has won the day.
several pieces of
serve in ordinary
ways, grate it
and to a cupful
of grated cheese
add one-half cup-
ful of boiling
• ream; stir until
the cheese Is dis-
solved, add cay- j
enno snd paprika, '
salt, if needed, nnd pour into a cream ■
cheese jar. The cheese will be creamy
and delicious and the bits 'ill be ;
saved for something worth while.
Cheese Salad. -Take a cream cheese
or two. add thick sweet cream to soft- 1
en, sesison with chopped chives, green
pepper and nuts. Make Into balls nnd i
serve on lettuce with a good boiled ;
Cottage cheese served plain, after
it has been enriched with cream nd !
such seasonings as are needed, served
with n good boiled dressing, makes a j
most tasty salad.
Cheese. Savory. — To one cream
cheese add a tablespoonful of softened |
butter, one teaspoouful of chives, one- !
half teaspoouful of parsley, both
TINTED EYEBROWS NEW IDEA
Decoration Is Coming Into Vogue With
New Coiffures; Plucker Will
Tinted eyebrows are coming into
vogue with the new coiffures. Of
course, they'll not be, but. according
to a beautifler, iniJady will not havo
to resort to her eyebrow plucker so
"The eyebrows will be permitted to
grow as bushy and shaggy as of old,"
the beauty doctor said "but they will
be trained with pomade to present
silky thick lines over the eyes. In-
stead of retaining the natural color of 1 lng a Ion
NEW LACES ARE YOUTHFUL.
Material Affords Ideal Summery Eve-
ning Gowns and Enhances Grace
of Youthful Silhouettes.
What could be more youthful or
more charming than the dainty, filmy-
colored laces offered for our admira-
tion? They make ideal summery eve-
ning gowns and more than anything
yet created enhance the slim grace of
young silhouettes. The laces of this
season were most certainly designed
for youth! The new shades, so soft,,
are exquisitely becoming. Lace is, In
itself, enough ornamentation nnd It*
consequence dresses of this delightful
stuff should be absolutely trimming-
A charming frock worn by one of
the guests at ti recent fashionable
wedding was fashioned of line cream-
colored silk net with edgings of
graceful design worn over an under-
slip of citron uiessnline satin. The
bodice was exceedingly snug, the short
sleeves and yoke being cut in one.
In contrast to the severity of tho-
corsage was the widely bouffant skirt
of Spanish origin. The girdle of cit-
ron tulle had floating draperies fall-
ing over the sides of the skirt, swing-
tassel at each end.
are usually strong and thrifty and will i chopped; one-third of a teaspoonful of |
grow much more rapidly than those
that are kept in confinement. In addi-
tion to other feeds, the chickens'
grow th may be hastened considerably
by giving them sour milk to drink.
Chickens are very fond of milk in any
form and will eat and drink a liberal
supply of It. It may be fed either
sweet or sour, but the latter is more
desirable. Sour milk will help to keep
chickens healthy, and Is one of the
test things that can be fed to promote
rapid growth and development When
Worcestershire sauce and anchovy
essence, with salt and paprika to
taste. Press Into a glass and serve
from time to time with crackers.
Cheese Ctoquettes.—To three table-
spoonfuls of melted butter add one-
third of a cupful of flour and stir until
well blended, then pour on gradually
one cupful of milk. Bring to the boil-
ing point and add the yolks of two
eggs slightly beaten and diluted with
two tablespoonfuls of cream and two
cupfuls of mild cheese cut in small
milk Is fed the amount of n^at scrap ! cubes. Season with three-fourths of
In the mash may he reduced one-half a teaspoonful of salt, a few dashes of
or left out entirely. | pepper (red) and spread on a plate
— j t0 coo| a8 g00n as the mixture is
smooth. When cool, shape, dip In
crumbs, egp and fry In deep fat.
1 Cheese Supper Dish.—Spread bread
Don't expect litKVegg pullets from with better and sprlnklo with grated
100-egg hens. Remember that "like
Keep lime always In rench. plenty of
gravel or grit and a good dry dust
bath for the fowls.
Excessive fatness leads to n suspen-
sion of egg production and predisposes
to certain kinds of disease.
cheese. Arrange in layers until the
required amount fills thp linking dish.
I'our over a pint of milk mixed with
two beaten eggs, a llttl salt and
over the top a generous sprin-
kling of paprika. Bake until the cus-
tard Is set. Serve from the dish.
FRILLS OF FASHION
I'laid taffeta Is used for sport skirts.
Nearly all new blouses are made of
hip length and slip on over the head.
Plaited ruflies of white organdie
trim some very pretty black sntln
Drawnwork Is often the only trim-
ming of imported crepe de chine
Soft black chantlily lace is charm-
ing over white satin. Tills combina-
tion makes adorable evening "owns.
Silk fringes are very much in evi-
dence Just now. We see Ibein on
dresses, coats, hats, handbags and
The Egyptian sash tied In front
and held in place with a Jeweled orna-
ment is still seen on some Imported
New collar seen on many new
wraps is very deep at the side, on
the shoulders and quite narrow at the
front and back.
Calico is used for a number of
qnaint summer frocks. Calico, com-
bined with linen, makes attractive gar-
den or porch dresses.
Many new dresses have widely
flaring skirts, the fullness placed on
the side, while front nnd back remain
Just as flat as possible.
The new sport suits have brightly
colored Jackets with white skirts
trimmed with wide bands of the col-
ored material, to match the coat.
Attractive afternoon summer dresses
will be made of printed chlfToa. This
new chiffon is very striking, decor-
ated with huge Cowers and queer
1 butterflies worked out on a rather
! dark background
plaits are combined with colorful Jack-
ets in duvetyn or canton crepe. Crepe-
de chine grounds figured with satin
In a brocade effect are making their'
appearance. Georgettes and chif-
fons nre also worn.
The old-time "Tom Thumb" fringes
nre seen on many of the taffeta frocks.
In edging the rallies, frills, puff head-
ings nnd box plaited ruchlngs. Tinted
laces, of tlie narrowed width, are used
in the same way, and Inpplng folds of
organdie, voile and chiffon are edged
with both lace and fringe In matching
and contrasting colors.
AMONG THE DRESS NOVELTIES
Trains Cascade Down Over the Arms
Fashions in Fans to Suit the
Trains may do anything this sea-
son—one of the newest inos Is tlint
which starts nt the square-necked
front of the corsage anil cascades
down over the arms In place of
sleeves. This is a delightful depart-
ure from the court train which swings
from the back shoulders.
Fashions in fans are myriad—select
one which suits your type. Cock feath-
ers lustrous nnd incandescent of color,
arc new and clever, ostrich feathers
are still good for the fluffy woman,
and for the tall, luring woman, who-
would wave a wicked weapon, there
are the peacock feathers.
To Place Rugs Properly.
ltugs should not be placed corner-
wise In a room. Lay straight on the-
floor; follow the lines of furniture and
White silk skirts lnld In accordion j the proportion of the room.
Here’s what’s next.
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Garnett, A. J. The Independent. (Cashion, Okla.), Vol. 14, No. 12, Ed. 1 Thursday, July 28, 1921, newspaper, July 28, 1921; (gateway.okhistory.org/ark:/67531/metadc107528/m1/4/: accessed December 19, 2018), The Gateway to Oklahoma History, gateway.okhistory.org; crediting Oklahoma Historical Society.