The Oklahoma Labor Unit (Oklahoma City, Okla.), Vol. 2, No. 34, Ed. 1 Saturday, February 4, 1911 Page: 2 of 8
The following text was automatically extracted from the image on this page using optical character recognition software:
SUPREME COURT WILL ACQUIT
LABOR LEADERS. SAY LAWYERS
hold it up to ridicule before the coun of rewards for all aorta of persona and
try at large. for all manner of offenses. Such was
Now the plan proposed la for the the unrestricted practice years before
.-tate to issue bonds to the amount of the Warren indictment, and such con-
five to ten millions of dollars and build tinues the practice up to this very
and operate a railroad of her own hour. Hundreds of persona doubtless
one that will extend clear across the have unjustly been accused, but no
state from northwest to southeast, and watchful government even issued or
then from north to south, thus the
state would bring relief to a large num.
i alber of her citizens that the railroads
(Pan American Press.) icott. 8uavo in his manner towards uro not helplnff.
Washington 1> Feb. 3—The men who sit above all authority In thj pQr our (>art we thlnk i( a wlRe j(lea
ludKt>H nf tlx' Supreme t'ourl of the United SUUes, Judge I arter did e «o | d would very much like to act- It
rnlu.d 8l.iteB being after all only thing to pleaae. flatter and a^t.t them Hinton Record.
human being.'. have* given such plain to the conclusion which It a plain _ .
expression to their feeling, Ju tt.,^ jj8n(e| | KNIGHTS CLASS the world, and Warren had availed!
satKBsa S&S3&2S5I ... r.
pee. h that might be tell-1 degree assembly for Oklahoma and
court but were plainly [Arkansas, Knights of I olmbus. la 1
expression 10 mvu
course of the argument! In the ro
tempt canes against President Gom
«rs, Secretary Morrison and Vice Pri
Ident Mitchell, that there 1* practically loud von
but one opinion expressed by attor- methods of sp<
neys and union men as to the outc ome lng In a poll
s curbing the practice, mucli less
to reach out and grasp the alleged
\lolatorB of this statute. Out of all
the millions of citizens of the United
States there was singled out Fred I).
Warren, and It is a peculiar and al-
most astounding coincidence that he
happened to be the editor of a radical
paper with the largest circulation in
of the trial, namely, "the defendants most
will be acquitted." judg*
• It would be a terrible punishment
emphasized Judge Alton B. Parke- • me„.. d,c|.red Davenport
distasteful to the listening' very busy man The fourth degree
"iTey "eaned back In their | will be put onIn .Oklahoma City at
cushioned chairs and In ominous si
(•nee heard him to the end.
the charac ter of a fugitive under In
dlctment for murder.
Peculiar Progress of the Case
On May 9. 1907, Warren appeared
at Fort Scott and demanded trial. The
government Insisted on a continuance.
It W'as not ready to proceed. It pro-
the K. of P. hall, 16 West Main street
on February 22. A class of over 200 posed to put ex-Governor Taylor on the
candidates will be introduced to thelstand, and Taylor evidently did not
and' mysteries of lhat degree. This inlt dare or care to leave Indiana. He
i00 until Ills
After the banquet after the Indictment of Warren
unci their ladles
the°heads of°the"jud«es. Parker then 11y,k" *"^n d "I ouder plctur-la grand ball will be given.
made a telling plea showing In what _ plague of unionism that had Candidates and members from
His friends imagined that the govern
ment would drop the case, but they
towrSfrtoflJ*d°f" the defendant's. Tie Injected t^UnlTidliateirte'liing "the over thestate will be In attendance on | n«Fe know "the animus back of It. A
.'^M'Vh«^ntentiv listening Judges that judges that they must tlnd these
LieX" tshudnot "onUnVed the boy guilty or worse would follow Haven-
cott after the Issuance of the injunc- port was finally s opped by the Chief
Uon but that they had mad,, an up Justice with the Information that he
peal for funds to carry on a legal de had run 7 minutes over his time,
fense and in making this appeal they , The arguments were ended and the
very rightfully explained to their fel court arose with the announcement
low union men the history of the that It would meet again on February
lluck'* Stove & Range company boy-1 20.
GRAFIERS, SAY OTHER
PORTO R1CANS TO THE RESCUE
men that day
TELEPHONE BUILDING UNFAIR
PLANS TO TAKE FROM THE
LANDERS THEIR LANDS
GUTHRIE TYPOS LEAD IN SHOW-
ING LOYALTY TO OKLA-
(By Pan-American Press.)
Washington. D. C„ Feb. 3.—Porto
Klcans are making a great outcry
against the practical abolition of all
political liberty in the island as pro-
posed In the Olmstead bill, a measure
which plans to give the Islanders even
less selfgovernment than they pos-
sessed under Spain.
By the Olmstead bill President Taft
is given the power to appoint the gov-
ernor, to appoint eight out of thirteen
members of the Senate and linally, to
guarantee a monopoly of all business
enterprises fulling Into I ho right
hands, the measure provides that all
railroad, street railway, telegraph and
telephone franchises must be approved
by the President of the United Stales
before they can become operative.
Also, all of the municipal Judges shall
be appointed by the governor—the
President's appointee—and by these
means a complete Taft-Emplre estab
llshcd In Porto Rico.
Louis Nunox Rivera, resident com
missioner of Porto Rico, at Washing
ton, has this to suy of the black out-
look for hta countrymen:
"The Foraker Act, which is now the
law of the Island, provides that the
ownership of land by corpora-Ions
shall be limited to 500 acres. But now
cornea the Senate Committee on Pa
cific Islands and Porlo Rico with an
amendment—recommended by the
President—which practically reads us
"That the number of acres of land
to be owned by corporations be not
limited, but that ItiBtead of this, the
limitation bo made only upon the
number that they may cultivate; the
corporations being allowed, If they so
wish It, to cultivate ti,000, 7,000 or
10,000 acres, provided they pay a suc-
cessively increasing excess of taxes
upon the number of acres they held
over the 5,000 authorized.
"This provision," continued Commls
sinner Hivera, "practically allows the
corporations to divide the island
among theinselvcB at their own picas
ure. Thus it may be safely stated
A CRIME WITH
OUT A NAMt
(Countiued from page 1)
motion to quash the Indictment was
| argued on November 11, 1907. purlng
Its progress Judge Pollock observed
lhat Willie the inscription oil the Ap-
Reports come from Bartlesville that peal to Reason envelopes was lnad-
the Pioneer Telephone building now vlsable and open to objection, he could
being erected In that city by the Mc- see In it no violation of the law.
Clellan Construction Co., Is unfair and j "I have a letter here from the attor-
that strike breakers have been Import- j ney general at Washington," excitedly
ed from Oklahoma City for its coil-1 declared Mr. West, the federal prose-
struction. It is a three-story reinforc cutor, "stating that the offense charged
ed building and no union men, with in this case la clearly in violation of
the exception of bricklayers, are em- the law, and authorising It to be vlg-
ployed In Its erection. Bartlesville Is orously prosecuted."
thoroughly organized and the labor or Hero was a clear ecro from some
ganlzatlons there, as well as many cit- voice "higher up." Judge Pollock took
lzens, are averse to the methods that the case under advisement, later over-
have been used in importing non-union ru)ed the motion to dismiss, and set
men. a hearing for /May 4, 1908. The gov-
j ernment insisted on two more post
ponements, and it was not until May
3, 1909, that the case was finally
It was Just ten days before this date
that ex-Governor Taylor had been par-
doned and the indictment against him
_ dismissed. Keep ill mind the fact that
Planning to enlist the support of I ~ ~ | it was not until Taylor was free to
every '1 ypographlcal Union in Oklaho-j (Countiued from page 1) come to Kansas that Warren could In
ma and adjoining states, for the pur-i duce the government to try his case,
pose of securing the International guilt, from a scurrilous, defamatory; "i |u> jury was composed exclusively
Typographical Union convention for and threatening" standpoint, was ex- of republicans most of whom had a
Oklahoma City in 1912, the tiuthrie actly one hundred times greater than , vague ijea that Warren was a manu-
organization has Joined hands with the that of Warren s, except that the lat-! facturer of dynamite bombs.
ter had used tlio exterior of envelopes There was little dispute concerning
in place of the tremendous sweep of j (|)e essential facts relating to the print-
publicity from thousands of columns jng aru] mailing of the envelopes on
of press articles in newspapers circu-1 whi<jh were contained the reward of-
lated through the mails.
Observe, If you please, that the giBt
of this indictment was to the eflect
that Warren had committed an offense
"Since It is the desire of the Okla- against the United States because of
honia City Typographical Union No. having "reflected injuriously upon the
283 to secure the international Typo- character and conduct" of a man then
graphical Union 1912 Convention, we under indictment for alleged partici-
conslder it the duty of every union pation in one of the most dastardly
printer In the State of Oklahoma to murders ever committed in the United
come forward and lend his every as- states; a man who was then a fugitive
sistance toward the furthering of Ok- from justice and for whom the stiito [ intense strain and suffering had whlt-
lahoma City Union's ambition, exem- of which he been the chief exueetive ene(1 his hajr an(j drawn lines in his
pllfying the fraternul spirit of printer- j was then offering $100,000 for his ap- panid face. He was of the same po-
dom that exists in this State, and to prehension and return., Uitical faith as all of the members of
show the delegates and visitors to San it was not that Warren had printed t|je jury, and many of them doubtless
Francisco that the printers of Okla this reward In his paper. He could consdered him a martyr in a righteous
homa stand shoulder to shoulder, anil have printed it a thousand times in cause. He was sworn and took the
heart to heart with the members of the "Appeal," could have blazoned it soiemn oath. 1 now quote from a cer-
Oklahoma City Union In their ambi-' on bill-boards and could have pro- ti fled copy of the trial proceedings,
tlon and mean to bring the 1912 coil | c.aimed it by w ord of mouth in Madi- [ ^e prosection asked him this ques-
ventlon to tlie youngest, biggest and eon Snuare Garden, and not have trans.!,joll:
best city and state in the United gresstd the law. 1 "During the period along about Jan
The "Crime" of a Future Jail-Bird
The Sale Where Values are
Appreciated and Merchan-
dise Bears the Label, Style
Quality and Workmanship
Woodhull, Goodale & Bull
Suits, Overcoats and Cravenettes
25 per Cent Discount on W ool Shirts, Coat
Sweaters, P'ancy Vests, Odd Trousers, Hannel-
ette Pajamas and Gowns.
20 per Cent Discount on all Winter Weight
local union, and at their last meet-
ing passed the following resolutions: '
tiuthrie, Okla., Jan. 1, 1911.
To the Officers and Members of Okla-
homa City Typographical Union No.
fer. Warren's attorneys argued that
the statute was not intended to cover,
and did not cover any such act.
The dramatic feature of the trial
and others with complicity in the aB-1 court; it has been in the minds of the
sassination of Senator lloebel. * * * people and the officers constantly.
Were I financially able to undergo the i Yet when Taylor went on the stand
burdens of a trial, and the conditions; in Fort Scott, in early May, 1909, he
were such that a fair and impartial swore that he was not under indict-
one could be had, gladly would 1 return ment on January 12, 1907, and thus
to Kentucky for that purpose. But a created in the minds of a partisan jury
of the trial trial where'one hundred thousand dc^ the impression that Warren at
i .if 1'irn ha.vp been annronriated to nro- ate and irresponsible Socialist editor,
was the appearance on he stand of, a™ have^ee^ 3™d^but a m£ek. had defied the laws of the United
ex-Governor Taylor, and his astounding j ^ ^ justicei and mean to me finan- States for the purpose of smirching
clal ruin, leaving my children home \ the character of an innocent man.
Astounding Testimony of Taylor
The entrance of the famous princl- less.
pal in the sensational Kentucky trag
edy was most impressive. Years of
States; therefore be it
"Resolved, That Guthrie Typograph-
ical Union No. 587 elect two members,
to attend the Benefit Ball to be held
at Oklahoma City, January 24. 1911,
for the purpose of conferring with the
executive officers of Oklahoma City
Union No. 283, to ascertain by what
means Guthrie Typographical Union
cau best subserve the interests of Ok-
lahoma City Union and to assure Okla-
homa City of our hearty co-operation
—individually and collectively."
G. E. DUNNICA,
J. W. McGATLIN,
In conformtiy with above resolu-
The proclamation of Governor Wil-
son granting the pardon is headed:
"On the application of William S.
Taylor for pardon of the indictment
pending in the Franklin circuit court
at the April term, 1900, accusing said
William S. Taylor of the crime of be-
ing accessory before the fact to the
"wilful murder of William Goebel."
That seems fairly conclusive evi-
dence, doesn't it? But possibly some
technical lapse may have occurred on
which Taylor could have based his tes-
timony to the effect that he was not
uary, 1907, was there any charge, any | un(]er indictment at the exact time
It must, have taxed the ingenuity of criminal charge, pending against you j Warren offered the reward? Listen
the prosecuting officials to discover a ;n the state of Kentucky.'
statute under which the Inquisitive! "Not that early," replied Taylor.
Warren could be punished. The task! The defense could hardly believe
was complicated by the fact that the ! iheir senses. Desiring to impress the
U. S. Supreme Court had legalized I jury w ith the fact that Warren had
kidnaping. However, there are thous- offered a reward for the kidnaping of I di when , wag inaugurated gov-
ands upon thousands of laws, and they a man not even under indictment, and j ernor of Kentucky on the 10th day of
can be twiBted to mean most any- presumably Innocent, the prosection 1907."
thing or nothing. Here is the one se- j continued:
to what Governor Wilson says in his
"This indictment was returned at
the April term, 1900, and continued
from term to term ever since, was
lected for the punishment of Warren
Section 498. All matter otherwise
mailable by law, upon the envelope or
outside cover or wrapper of which, or
any postal card upon which, any delin-
eations, epithets, terms, or language
of an indecent, lewd, lascivious, ob-
scene, libelous, scurrilous, defamatory
or threatening character, or calculated
by the terms or manner or style of
•Not that early; there was at some
Warren committed the crime of add-
ing $1,000 to the $100,000 Kentucky
"There was subsequently an indict-1 reward on January 12, 1907. Governor
ment returned but not made public] \Vlllson continues.
until Mav 21 1907 " " "he Taylor indictment for mur-
It Is impossible to invent a valid, tier) has not been forgotten or over-
excuse for this proceedings. Ex-Gov-1 looked; it has been on the docket and
ernor Taylor was indicted In April,
1900, and—as will absolutely he proved
—the indictment was constantly In
called and continued at every term of
That is not the damning part of it.
The defense was not permitted to offer
the Taylor indictment in rebuttal evi-
dence, nor were Warren's lawyers able
to submit to the jury the absolute doc-
umentary proof in their possession to
the effect that Taylor had either made
a mistake or had committed deliberate
perjury. Either the idiotic technicali-
ties of law, the rules of evidence or
some other eqally unfair reason or
motive prevented Warren from refut-
ing a charge which surely convicted
him in the minds of that jury.
Of course Warren was convicted. It
was a legal triumph of which the great
est republic on earth might well be
proud. After the jury had returned
its verdict the court permitted War-
ren's lawyers to make the Taylor in
dictment a "part of the record." It
was contrived to do this In such a
manner that it violated some legal
technicality, thus giving a higher
court an excuse to ignore it. You re-
call what Pickwick said about the law.
That harassed person declared that
"the law was an ass!" He was a very
conservative old gentleman,
(Concluded next week.)
It is reasonably safe to judge a man
by the friends he hasn't.
„„„ i„ Whleh men like Car-' tlons, representatives from the Guthrie display and obviously intended to re- force until he was pardoned in April,
, Rockefeller— who have glv-1 union have conferred with the local fleet injuriously upon the character or 1909. It is inconceivable that Taylor
, , over j180 oon 000 each for committee and a thorough working conduct of another, may be written or deliberately and intentionally commit-
Tthiiinthrnnlo nurnoses — are interest- plan has been promulgated. printed, or otherwise impressed or ap- ted perjury. The prosecution later
have lSfnle means to buy parent, are hereby declared non-mall- claimed that he misunderstood the
the entire island for a price less than OKLAHOMA TO BE A RAILROAD able matter, and shall not be conveyed question. It may be possible for a
the above sum and the natives would BUILDER. I In the mails, nor delivered from any man to make a mistake of se\en years
have to bo simply tools of labor while postofflce nor by any letter carrier, and in so important a matter as the date
the corporations would be able to pay There lB a proposition up before the Bha" be withdrawn from the mails un- „f his indictment for murder. It was
their stockholders rich dividends. ' legislature and cc
"By the autonomic charter, granted i over the 8tate for [_ .HL
V, 32P'mem^s and8 aTcma™?^ lh* ral,road bu8"*8"- , ! orTause Vo be "deposited, "for milling i in the fact that the law representatives
Vl whiS, were elected and 7 appointed uT™!!'. <>r de,lverjr- dPdared by U"?'of '"e .United States_proceeded to take
by the King of Spain, the I orto Hie- 10adg (.ontained therein there has been
ans were given the entire control of (mt mUe progreB8 in thc rallroad bus.
"Also Porto Rico sent to the Span- ineBS ln ,hc a,ate: ,hal ls' ln rallroud more than five thousand'dollars. or im
ish congress its renresentatlviTs from 'levelopment and building There are prlsonment at hard labor not more
the yearTsn just 11 century a^go At " *"od m"n>' Por,,"n8 of .tl,e 8tat,e han five years, or both, at discretion
the time of Vhe American TCc^mtlon. I are very productive In agricul- f thc court.
I tural products and stock and have| Do you know why that law was in-
Union Printing Off.ces
ENTITLED TO THE USE OF THIS LABEL.
oposmon up Deiore tne (ler guch reguiationa as the postmas- j not possible that the prosecution was
considerable agitation (gr generai shau prescribe; and any ; unaware of this mistake, and the most
[or tne state to g person who shall knowingly deposit, deplorable feature of this case is found
.tlon and the restrictions on the rail- eectjon to" bo nonmailable matter
shall, for each and every offense,
upon conviction thereof, be fined not
in i898. Porto Hlco was represented In shipping facilities.! troduced and na8Bed, Toche
the Spanish congress by three sena-, ^ cro'pg haye hauled miles ,roduc<,<1 and ',a8Be<1'
full advantage of Taylor's mistake
and successfully to resist the offering I
in evidence of documents absolutely j
establishing the falsity of the state-1
ment made under oath by Taylor. It |
was not deemed beneath the dignity |
of the United States, as represented]
bv its paid law officials, to railroad an
American citizen to jail on palpably ;
operations of "bad debt collection | false evidence.
and miles to a railroad point for mar- aRencieBf which had invented the ex-' The plan and undisputable truth is
matter as the Spanish ketlnS. >'et there 18 no indication that pcdlem of printing conspicuously on that Taylor was indicted seven years
•enresentatives thus con there will be a railroad built through envelopes or postal cards matters "ob- before an indictment was charged
olve not only the affairs thcBO parl8 of the 8tale al any near viously intended to reflect injuriously against Warren, and the Taylor indict-
force at the time Warren
tors and sixteen representatives who
had the right to speak and vote upon
any national m
senators and rt
tributlng to solve not only u ■■■■■■
relating to Porto Rico, but also those | ume* 'upon the character or conduct of an- ment was in
concerning Spain herself. Today we Before statehood there were practi- other." That was tlie plain and ex- offered the reward, and for more than i
have at Washington a resident com- tally no laws regulating railroads and cellent purport of the bill, and con-j two years afterwards. Taylor, as he |
missioner who is not given the right they conducted their business to Kress granted such relief to tho vie- gavo that testimony, had but just
to vote. The difference is certainly please themselves. There were no re- tims of unscrupulous collection agen- stepped into the sunlight from out
a remarkable one." strictions as to lobbying in the legis cies. 'he shadow of the gallows. lugura-
The commissioner concludes with lature and the consequence was that j if proof be needed that this enact- tively speaking, the ink on his letter
this both plaintive and sarcastic ques- laws were passed that were not detri- ment was not intended to prevent the of pardon was hardly yet dry. That
tion: mental to the railroads when it coine mailing of postal cards and envelopes pardon was issued by Governor Aug-,
••How was Porto Rico to suspect to assessing their property, and there containing offers of rewards for fugi- ustus S. Wilson, of Kentucky, under
that this land of liberty was to be less were no restrictions as to the price tlves from justice or persons accused date of April 23, 1909, and the Warren
liberal with us than Spain, the least for passenger mileage nor on freight Gr under indictment, that proof con- trial began on May 3d, only ten short
liberal nation of Europe" rates. gists of the fact that ten of thousands days thereafter.
When the constitution came into of such letters and postal cards are Proof of Taylor's Mistake
NOT RESPONSIBLE. vogue there were strong curbs put on being distributed by the post office On February 26th, two months ana
the railroads, which, after their long department at this very moment. 1 a few days before he gave that testt-
Wrltlng the Unit from Durant, Okla.. time of running things to suit them have in my possession or at command mony. Taylor wrote a letter appealing
the secretary of Local 12937, American selves, did not set very pleasantly. j fully one thousand of such letters and to Governor W ilson, of Kentucky, or
Federation of Labor, states that a The result has been that the roads postal cards, hundreds of them issued a pardon, I quote of its opening par-
former secretary, J. M. Melton, has have been continually fighting the pro- since Warren committed the crime of agraph:
been suFpendfd. and that tho local visions of the constitution and the or- printing on an envelopo the wording "Nine years ago the wi 1 of the neo-
union will not be responsible for any ders of the corporation commission in of a reward for a man under indict- pie of Kentucky was overthrown Tina
business he transacts in the name of the courts ever since statehood, and all ment for murder. 1 was deprived of the ofnee to which
that union. The letter received is railroad promotion has ceased, and Let me repeat that the time of War they had elected me. lo obscure that
official and bears the seal of the or there has been a tendency to cripple! ren's indictment the postoffices were wrong, an indictment was returned to
ganization. the state as much as possible and to j flooded with openly displayed offers j the Franklin circuit court, charging me
TRADES! | COUNCIL ft
Fair List Alliea Printing Trades Council
Daily Oklahoman, 502 North Broadway.
Daily Times, 117-119 West Second.
Times-Journal Printing Co., (Job Printing) 218-220 TV. Grand.
Western Newspaper Union, (Publishers) Cor. 2nd & Harvey.
Warden Printing Co., (Job Printing) 16-18 North Lee.
The Daily News, (Newspaper) 508 West Grand.
Oklahoman Job Office, (Job Printing) 16 South Robinson.
Manley Office Supply Co., (Job Printing) 20-22 So. Robinson.
Daily Pointer, (Newspaper) 218 West Grand.
Bridgers Printing Co., (Job Printing) Basement Majestic Bldg.
Wand & Son, (Printing, Rubber Stamps, Etc.) 304% w. Main.
Burnette Printing Co., (Job Printing) 10 N. Brdwy., Basement.
Phelps Printing Co., (Job Printing) 111V4 W. Main.
Duun & Sons, (Job Printing) Room 15, W. N. U. Bldg.
Baer Printing Co., (Job Printing) 200% W. Main.
Francis Typesetting Co., (Linotype) Basement Majestic Bldg.
Farm Journal, (Newspaper) 218 W. Second.
The Peerless Press, (Job Printing) 218 W. Second.
Engraving & Printing Co., (Job Printing) 13 W. Main.
Union Printing Co., (Job Printing) 108% W. Grand.
Oklahoma Daily Live Stock News, Packingtown.
Pythian Times, 236 South Broadway.
McLean Printing Co., (Job I'rlnllng) Indiana Bldg.
Oklahoma Specialty Co., (Novelties) 118 W. Second.
Western Bank Note Co., (Job Printing) 120 W. Main.
Buck McMaster, (Job Printing) 1230 W. 13th.
Thomas Print Shop, (Job Printing) 127% W. Grand.
Hommas & Wilson, (Job Printingl 212% W. FirBt.
The Smith Typeshop, (Linotype) W. N. U. Bldg.
Markwell Priming Co , (Job Printing) 129% W. Main.
Printers' Publishing Co., (Publishers! Basement Majestic Bldg
Smythe Ptg. Co., (Job Printers) 123 W. First St.
Pioneer Pub. Co., Indiana Bldg., First & Robinson.
♦Offices having Linotype machines.
§Offlces having Monotype machines.
Here’s what’s next.
This issue can be searched. Note: Results may vary based on the legibility of text within the document.
Tools / Downloads
Get a copy of this page or view the extracted text.
Citing and Sharing
Basic information for referencing this web page. We also provide extended guidance on usage rights, references, copying or embedding.
Reference the current page of this Newspaper.
Wilson, Ollie S. The Oklahoma Labor Unit (Oklahoma City, Okla.), Vol. 2, No. 34, Ed. 1 Saturday, February 4, 1911, newspaper, February 4, 1911; Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. (gateway.okhistory.org/ark:/67531/metadc106957/m1/2/: accessed November 24, 2017), The Gateway to Oklahoma History, gateway.okhistory.org; crediting Oklahoma Historical Society.