The Hennessey Clipper (Hennessey, Okla.), Vol. 27, No. 40, Ed. 1 Thursday, March 8, 1917 Page: 2 of 10
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POWER TO GUARD
RIGHTS OF U. S.
Declares Diplomatic Means Have
Failed to Safeguard Amer-
Requests Conoress to Grant Power to
Arm American Merchant Vessels
and to Use Armed Forces of the
Nation to Defend Rights of
United States Citizens.
Washington, Fob. 27.—President Wil-
son delivered an address before joint
session of congress yesterday. Ho de-
clared that diplomatic means had
failed to safeguard American Interests
and that nil that Is left now Is lo
adopt an attitude of armed neutrality.
He specifically asked that he be given
authority to arm American merchant
The president's address was as fol-
"Gentlemen of the Congress :
1 have again asked the privilege of
addressing you because we are moving
through critical times during which it
seems to me to be my duty to keep in
close touch with the houses of con-
gress, so that neither counsel nor ac-
tion shall run nt cross-purposes be-
, "On the third of February 1 officially
Informed you of the sudden and unex-
pected action of the imperial German
government in declaring Its Intention
to disregard the promises It had made
to this government in April last and
undertake immediate submarine opera-
tions against all commerce, whether
belligerents or neutrals, that should
seek to approach Great Britain and Ire-
land. the Atlantic coasts of Europe, or
the harbors of the eastern Mediterra-
nean, and to conduct those operations
without regard to the established re-
strictions of International practice,
without regard to any considerations
of humanity even which might litter
fere with their object. That policy was
forthwith put into .practice. It has
now been in active execution for near-
ly four weeks.
All Commerce Suffering.
"Its practical results are not yet
fully disclosed. The commerce of other
neutral nations Is suffering severely,
but not, perhaps, very much more se-
verely than it was already suffering be
for the first of February, when the new
policy of the imperial government was
put into operation. We have asked the
co-operation of oilier neutral govern-
ments to prevent these depredations,
but so far none of them litis thought it
wise to join us In any common course
"Our own commerce has suffered. Is
suffering, rather In apprehension than
In fact, rather because so many of our
ships are timidly keeping to their home
jiorts than because American ships
"Two American vessels have been
sunk, the Housatonic and the Lyman
"The case of the Housatonic, which
was carrying foodstuffs to a London
linn, was essentially like the case ot
the Fr.ve, In w hlch. It will be teen I lei I,
the German government admitted its
liability f,,r damages, and the lives of
the crew, as In the cuse of the & rye,
were safeguarded with reasonable care.
"The case of the Law, which was
carrying lemon-box staves to Palermo,
disclosed a ruthlessness of method
which deserves grave condemnation,
but was accompanied by no circum
stances which might not have been ex-
pected nt any time in connection with
the use of the submarine against mer
chatitinen as the German government
has used 1'.
"In summing up, therefore, the situ-
ntion we find ourselves n with r -aid
to the actual conduct of the German
submarine warfare against commerce
and Its effects upon our own s-liip- and
people is substantially the same that
It was when I addressed you on the
third of February, except for the tying
lip of our shipping In our nun ports
because of the unwillii I
shipowners to risk iheir
situation Is fraught with the gravest
possibilities and dangers. No thought-
ful man Can fall to see that the neces-
sity of definite action may come at
any time, If we are in fact, and not in
word, merely, ready to defend our ele-
mentary rights as a neutral nation. It
would be most Imprudent to be unpre-
"I cannot In such clrcunistnnces m
unmindful of the fact that the expi-
ration term of the present emigres*
is Immediately at hand by constitu-
tional limitation, and that It would In
all likelihood require an unusual
length of time to assemble and organ-
ize the congress which Is to succ It.
"1 feel that I ought. In view of that
I fact, to obtain from you full and ini-
mediate assurance of the nuthorlt.v
which I may need at any moment to
"No doubt I already possess that
authority without special warrant of
law by the plain Implication of my
constitutional duties and powers; but
I prefer, in the present circumstances,
not to act upon general implication.
I wish to feel that the authority and
the power of the congress are behind
me in whatever it may become neces-
sary for me to do.
Must Act Together
"We are jointly the servants of the
people and must act together and in
their spirit, so fur as we can divine
and Interpret it. No one doubts that
It Is our duty to do so.
"We must defend our commerce and
the lives of the people In the midst
of the present trying circumstances,
with discretion but with dear and
steadfast purpose. Only the method
and the extent remain to lie chosen
upon the occasion, if occasion should
"Since it lias unhappily proved im-
possible to safeguard our neutral
rights by diplomatic means against the
unwarranted infringements they uie
THE CLIPPER. HENNESSEY, OKLAHOMA
nte door, the main corridors of the
senate and through the rotunda of the
capltol to the place set for the oath-
taking. On reaching the inaugural
stand. W'oodrow Wilson took a place
directly in front of Edward L>. W bite,
the chief justice of the United States,
and the chief clerk of the Supreme
court, .lames I\ Maher. The sergeant-
... I at-arms of the senate and the congres-
Chief Executive Inducted Into I si(inill committee on arrangements were
immediately on the left of the presi-
dent. The vice president, the associ-
ate justices of the Supreme Court and
the members of the senate sat upon his
When all were assembled Chief Jus-
tice White, having in his right hand the
open Bible upon which the hands of
many former presidents have rested,
advanced to Woodruw Wilson and ad-
ministered to him this oath, which is
imposed by the Constitution of the
You do solemnly swear that you
Office With Due Ceremony.
PATRIOTISM MARKS THE DAY
Vice President Marshall First Takes
the Oath—Imposing Inaugural Pa-
rade Is Largely Military in Its
Nature—Flags and Illumination.
By EDWARD B. CLARK.
Washington, March 5. — Woodrow |
DOINSS OF THE
lilt CONGRESS :r=i-r ass,?
of ships to be leased to private indl
viduals in an effort to restore the
American merchant murine.
The Adamson eight-hour
law was enacted on the
eve of ad-
Notable for Response to the De-
mand for Preparedness.
AUTHORIZED A GREAT NAVY
\\ ItMIUIKli'ii, mm «ii «■'. | sv
\Vilson has been inaugurated president : will faithfully execute the olne
of the United States for the second president of the United States and
time and Thomas H. Marshall has will to the best of your ability, pre-
come into his own as vice president of serve, protect and defend the Constl-
the United States for the second time
In company with the chief executive.
For several nights prior to the in-
auguration, Washington was a flood of
light. Thousands of American citizens
came to the capital of their nation
from all over the United States to wit-
ness the ceremonies attending the in-
auguration. The situation of the coun-
try in reference to Its foreign relations
added more than a touch of serious-
ness and a distinct flavor of patriotism
to the entire proceeiflngs. Washington
is a city of flags at all times, but it
became ten times a city of flngs one
day before the ceremonies of inaugu-
1'resldentWilsondrove from the White
House to the capitol with his wife at his
tide. In the carriage with him were
! two members of the congressional com-
mittee which had general charge of
tution of the United States.
Woodrow Wilson said in a firm
voice, "I do," and he became for the
second time president of the United
States of America.
Then the president delivered his in-
augural address anil on its conclusion
he mude Ills way with Mrs. Wilson to
suffering at the hands of (ierinany. , -_ , f senator
T ^.Tin, ;"Lrow'how (ivernmn of North Carolina is chair-
neutrality, which we shall kiiow now
to maintain and for which there i- president Marshall, with Mrs.
abundant American precedent.
Hopes to Avoid War.
"It is devoutly to be hoped that it
will not he necessary to put armed
force anywhere into action. Tin-
American people do not desire it. and
our desire is not different from theirs.
I am sure that they will understand
the spirit in which I am neili.g. the j ^ „ vipw of Penn.
purpose I hold nearest nn hen, I and RVpmje n]so wpre crowded
would wish to exhibit In everjthlw, ^ im]oHk(,rs xhe re(lt white and
d". , , ,. . . j iiHte was everywhere in evidence. The
"I am anxltflis that the .en >le ' f I h. for„lfnl flnRS t0 be seen In Wash-
the nations at war also should un r . W(W ,hosp flving from ,he flag-
stand and not mistrust us. I hope that ] ^ ^ of (hp foreJgn embassies
Marshall in the carriage with him, w as
iscorteil in like manner to the capijol.
Big Crowds, Many Flags.
From nn early hour the sidewalks
were crowded with persons waiting to
j see the president and "the first lady
| of the land" pass along the avenue to
the place of the oath-taking. All the
,1 give no further proois and as- ! j j ^ which, even though they are
already given ... ... ,,,-a
Thomas R. Marshall.
Provided Also for Increase and Reor-
ganization of Army—Some of the
Momentous Economic Statutes
That Were Passed.
Washington, March B.—The Sixty-
frurth congress, which lias passed into
the annals of things that were, will be
long remembered as the congress
which responded to the demand for
national preparedness. While eco-
nomic statutes of pith and moment
have been written into the law of the
land, preparedness measures, inspired
by tlie European war, out-top all other
Although ample provision has been
made for fortifications, and authority
has been granted by congress to more
than double the standing army of the
country, the metamorphosis of the
the measure prevented a nation-
wide railroad strike. It, however,
lias never become effective. be-
tween the time of its enactment and
the time for the commencement of its
operation, January 1 last, the constitu-
tionality of the measure was chal-
lenged by the railroads, and the whole
matter is now pending In the Supreme
Supplemental railroad legislation,
proposed by President Wilson In his
annual message last December, failed
of enactment. Tills legislation would ;
have provided for the prevention of
strikes by compulsory legislation. It
was heartily opposed by all of the
bodies of organized labor which had
previously sought the eiglit-liour rail*
Child Labor and Immigration.
The child labor law barred from in-
terstate commerce all products of chil-
dren under sixteen years of age in
mines or of children under fourteen in
The passage of the immigration hill
with its literacy test was accomplished'
over 1'resident Wilsons second veto.
The literacy feature hud been a
subject of controversy between the ex-
ecutive and legislative branches of the
United States from a commercial to government for the past twenty ve.irs.
' Presidents Taft and Cleveland both ve-
toed immigration measures because
throughout nearly three years of anx
ions patience that 1 am th
located in the city of Washington, are
, • , . recognized as being foreign territory.
.... .: i t. \r..wVw ll trno rOIVO
peace and mean to preserve
America so long as 1 am able.
"I am not now proposing or eon- j
templatlng war or any steps that need
lead to It. I merely request that you ;
will accord me by your own vote and !
definite bestowal the means and au-
thority to safeguard In* practice the
right of a great people who are at j
pence and who are desirous of exer- j
cising none but the rights of peace to
follow the pursuits of pence in quiet-
ness and good will—rlirhts reeogni/.ed
Vice President Marshall was resworn
11 1 - - before the inauguration of
the president. The exercises took place
In the senate chamber. The legisla-
tive day of March 3. so far as the sen-
ate was concerned, had been continued
by recesses until tlie hour of 1- noon
of the calendar day March 5.
The president pro tempore of the
senate presided at the ceremonies pre-
ceding the administering of the oatli to
the vice president-elect. The president
of tlie United States, the members of
r 111 1 !fn1 Th!?'«Vvi'lI■< 1 i the 'cnbTnet, the foreign ambassadors
time out of mind bj nil the ei\in/.<u 1 . .„.i.
s w ere
without insurance or adequate protec-
tion. and the u ry serious congestion
of our commerce which iuis i
a congestion which Is growing
more and more serious every da>
"This In itself might presently
complish. In effi < t. w hat the new
man submarine ord
accomplish, so far
•'We can oniy say. therefor
the overt act which I have ventured to
hope the fo rinan commanders would
In fact avoid lias not occurred.
Some Alarming Signs.
••But while this is happll.v true, it
must be admitted that there have been
certain additional Indications and ex-
pressions of purpose on the part of
the German press and the German au-
thorities which have Increased rather
than lessened tlie Impression that, If
our ships and our people are spared
It will he because of fortunate cir-
cumstances or because the com-
manders of the German submarines
which they may huppen to encounter
exercise an unexpected discretion and
restraint rather than because of the
Instructions under which those com-
manders are acting.
"It v.ould be foolish to deny that the
nations of the world.
War Only for Willful Act.
"No course of my choosing or of
theirs will lead to war. War can come ;
only by the willful acts and aggres-
sions of others.
"I believe I hat tlie people will be
willing to trust me to act with re-
straint. with prudence and In tlie true
spirit of amity and good faith that
they have themselves displayed
throughout these trying months, and
it is in that belief that 1 request that
you will authorize me to supply our
merchant ships with defensive anus
should that become necessary, and
with the mentis of using them, anil to
employ any other instrumentalities oc
methods that may lie necessary and
adequate to protect our ships and our
people In their legitimate and peace-
ful pursuits on the seas.
"I request also that you will grant
me at the same time, along with the
powers I ask. a sufficient credit to en-
able me to provide adequate mean
protection where they are lacking, in-
cluding adequate Insurance against
the present war risks.
Speaks for Human Rights.
"I have spoken of our commerce anil
of the legitimate errands of our
people on the seas, but you will not be
misled as to my main thought, the
Thought that lies beneath these phrases
suu I and gives them dignity nnd
•and other notnhle guests occupied seats
fighting nation has been wrought
by the naval increases authorized.
The congress now expired lias au-
thorized naval armaments destined to
make Uncle Sum eventually the peer
of any nation on earth in sea power,
excepting, perhaps, Great Britain.
In the two sessions comprising the
Sixty-fourth congress there have j
been authorized and appropriated for j
no less than 118 war craft. Nor is
this all. The first session adopted a
three-year-building program, the con- j
struction of which should he under- j
taken prior to July 1, 191S. This pro-
gram included t.iis allotment of fight- I
ing ships: Ten battleships, six battle
cruisers, ten scout cruisers. BO torpedo-
boat destroyers, nine fleet submarines.
r,s coast submarines, one experimental
submarine (Neff system), three fuel
ships, one repair ship, one transport,
one hospital ship, two destroyer ten-
ders. one fleet submarine tender, two
his carriage and was driven slowly to | ammunition ships, two gunboats,
the White House at the head of the ] Naval Vessels Appropriated For.
procession formed In honor of the in- | j.v ,|„, m.t w hich adopted this build-
augural ceremonies. j Ing program congress appropriated
Luncheon Deferred for Parade. j for f„„r battleships, four battle eruis-
In years past the presidential party j ,.rs four scout cruisers, -0 destroyers,
always has entered the White House i tjo submarines, and one each of these
for luncheon prior to the review of ernft: Kxperimental submarine, fuel
the parade from the stand In front of j hospital ship, ammunition ship
the executive mansion. Tills invaria- ,m(| gunboat. During the second ses-
blv in the past caused such a delay j sion provision was made for three bat-
that it was decided this year to do ! Uoships. one battle cruiser, three scout
away with the luncheon feature. cruisers, 15 destroyers, one destroyer
President Wilson with Mrs. Wilson. t,.nder, one submarine tender and 18
the Vice President and Mrs. Marshall, i submarines.
and two members of his cabinet went j if the Sixt.v-flfth congress adopts the
immediately to the little inclosed struc- (hree-yenr program the remainder
lure, much like a sentry box, which i t]„, units for the reorganized ba
lmd 'been built In the middle of the 1 fleet will be appropriated for
great grandstand in front of tlie White staggering sums have in
House and from which the chief exe- j quired to these demands, the na-
cutive viewed the paraders. val appropriation for the si 1
It was the gravity of the situation sion of the expired congre:
in connection with our foreign affairs j amounting to almost a round
which gave to the inaugural ceremo- j u,,,, dollars.
nies their serious tone anil patriotic so great have been these expendi-
features The parade of the day was i t„r(,s that the ordinary sources of rev-
largely military in its nature, although I enue ,,re not sufficient and a special
there were In the procession mnhy j revenue measure had to lie ^ passed,
s which in a sense might be said , Uepresentatlvo Kltehin, majority leatt-
tlie.v carried tlie literacy feature,
which all three presidents thought was
not a proper measure of the fitness of
aliens for admission to the United
The federal farm-loan act. commonly
called the rural-credits bill, created
12 federal land hanks with $750.< H>
capital each. The bill provides a sys-
tem whereby loans may be made to
farmers for productive purposes
through national farm-loan associa-
tions. It will meet more particularly
the needs of agriculturists in the West
Under the vocational educational act
the federal government on a gradually
increasing scale covers 'every state ap-
propriation dollar for dollar for secon-
dary school instruction in agriculture
i and the mechanical and industrial arts,
(in the eve of adjournment emigres*
passed the post-office appropriation
bill, with an amendment making "bone
dry" all states having prohibitory laws.
This measure was introduced In the
senate by Senator Reed of Missouri.
Its unexpected enactment had the ef-
fect of absolutely prohibiting the ship-
ment In interstate commerce of Intoxi-
cates or territories which
to represent the spirit of Industrial I Pr mld chairman of the bouse ways
preparedness of the United States for means committee. a small-navy
any eventuality which might come. man, in drafting the revenue ineasu e
Make-up of the Procession. j ,ind pressing it to passage 1 "
At the forefront of the parade as it |„,USe charged full responsibility for
left the capltol were, of course, tlie j the measure to the advocates ol pre-
presiilent and the vice president of the pnredness.
United States with their guards of , Increase of the Army.
honor. Major General Hugh L. Scott. Increases of the regular arm> am .
it « irmv was the grand marshal of reorganizations under the national clo-
the occasion. George R. Linklns was fense act were less striking than the
the marshal of the civic organizations „llVai increases. But the regular a i
Which'took part In the marching cere- wtis increased from an authorize.
1 pPllce strength of 100.000 to an author-
m'immediately preceding the carriages | iz,.,i peace strength of 'Jld.om, c imbh'
of the presidential and vice presiden- j 0f expansion in war time to -
t^l parties and of Col. Robert N. Har- Aft,„. prolonged agitation for prepared-
i per, inaugural chairman, was the fa-
mous United States Marine band. The
president hail as liis guard of honor
the squadron of the Second United
The Vice President nnd Mrs. Mar-
shall w ere escorted by the Black Hoise
troop of the Culver Military academy,
Indiana, the state of which the vice
president nnd ills wife are natives
The West Point cadets and the An-
forbid the manufacture or
It also closes the mails to all liquor
advertising, including newspaper ad-
vertising. Neither can letters solicit-
ing liquor orders be carried in the
Sixteen Senators Retire.
Sixteen senators have now discarded
their togas anil prefixed their titles
with "ex." This disturbance of per-
sonnel reduces but does riot upset tin?
Democratic control of the upper house.
The Democratic majority of 16 is out
to 12. leaving out of consideration such
senators and senators-elect n1^ l.a I' • I -
lette. Hiram Johnson, Polndexter and
Norris, officially classed as Republic-
ans but not always voting according to
Among the nfltionally known sena-
tors now retired to private life are
(iarenee 11. Clark' of Wyoming, who
luis served iii the senate continuously
since January 1805; Moses lv Clapp
of Minnesota, one of the original Pro-
gressives; I.like I.ea of Tennessee, now
only thirty seven years old. known as
the "Baby Senator;" James K. Martini*
of New Jersey, who acquired fame
i early in his senatorial career by his
stanch defense of applejack as a bev-
erage, and John ^ . Kern of Indiana,
who has been Ilemoeralic leader of the
"Needing no introduction" among the
new senators are lliram Johnson oi
California, Frank B. Kellogg, "trust
ness both on land and sea, the conseii- ^ |iuster," of Minnesota, and Philander
sus of the military experts was that the j (, Knox of Pennsylvania. Unlike the
United States with Its enormous length , r(,st <lf )ll(, S(.nators-elect, "their repu-
t rely on Its fleet to ] tntl(ms ,ir(, ,„udo;" ai| they need to do
up to 'em."
of coast line must
defend its shores. «
In the discussions that preparedness
' d it was
is to "live
is not of material Interests merely that
we are thinking. It is, rather, of fun
damcntiil human rights, chief of all the
light of life Itself.
"I am thinking not only of right* "f i
i \merlcans to go and come about theli
I proper business by w ay of I lie sea. but
:ilso of something much deeper, much
more fundamental than that. 1 am
j thinking of those rights of humanity
without which there Is no civilization. |
My theme is of those great principles i
of eouipa*—ion nnd of protection which
mankind lias sought to throw about liu
man lives, the lives of noncomhatants.
the lives of men who are peacefully at
work keeping the Industrial processes
of the world quick and vital, the lives
of women and children and of thos.-
who supply the labor which ministers
to their sustenance.
"We are speaking of no selll-li mate-
rial rights, but Of rights which our
hearts support and whose foundation l
that righteous passion for Justice upon
which all law. all structures alike ot
family, of stale and of mankind inaj
rest, as upon the ultimate base of out
existence and our liberty.
"I cannot Imagine a man with Amor
lean principles at bis heart hesitating
to defend these things."
in the senate chamber. At twelve
o'clock the president pro tempore ad-
ministered the oath of office prescribed
by law to the vice president-elect.
Immediately following the taking of
the oath of office by Mr. Marshall, the
newly elected senators of the United
States were sworn into office. fl hen
the vice president made tills announce-
ment: "The sergennt-at-arms of the
senate will carry out the order of the
senate for the Inauguration of the pres-
ident of the United States.''
The president-elect, accompanied by
the chief Justi e of the United Slates,
the Joint committee on arrangements,
the associate Justices of the supreme
Court, the foreign ambassadors and
ministers plenipotentiary, tlie members
of the senate, preceded by the vice
president and secretary of the senate,
tlie holdover members of the house of
representatives, preceded by the offi-
cers of the house who have just relin-
quished office by virtue of the expira-
tion of their terms, and other distin-
guished guests made tiieir way to the
Inauguration of the President.
The procession, beaded by the presi-
dent-elect, wound through the eust Hen-
agitation in congrt
again and again demonstrated that the
temper of the American people is ab-
solutely against a big standing army.
Portlier Secretary Garrison formulated
rvsrs: i r:
In Addition there were troop^from . and
Delaware, lenns^ vam . her I instituted for It in the national de-
states of' the Union representing the I r,.„so the federalization of the Mi-
t iona 1 4iuanl.
Mr. llay won President
his way of thinking—the
. .. t,(l nTUi nicturesotie feature wilson over to his wa\ oi i"'"m.i^ >
Army Of Secretary Harrison resigned from tie
Other Notable Acts.
Although preparedness was
of legislation, th
gurntlon was supplied by the
thinning ranks of the Grnnd Army oi Secret, , >
the Kepubllc. In years past the sol cabinet.
dlers of the war between the states i
have made the entire length of the line
nf rnnrch hut this year the distance) n„te
i • i th. v trumped was shortened. I congress found time a I
nn to the picture of the pa- , s ip purcha-e bill, the Adamson eight-
C - ovedbvlho presidential ,, labor aw. a
review! ng stand with their old flags | ;;;= tojorbld tlmlmmi^at
"'T night' Washington was aglow Vocational educational hill ami a;, act
nations. In addition searchlights | islanders
showed the heavens here and there,
nnd one great shaft of light Illumi-
nated the apex of the Washington
monument while another llghtei
and brought Into bold relief the dome
of the capltol.
The ship purchase bill established
„ government shipping board to su
nervlse shipping matters generally. H
appropriated ?:«,000,IKH> to he ob-
tained from the sale of Panama
WRITERS BEHIND THE TIMES
Complaint Made That They Have
Taken No Cognizance of Changes
Occurring in Dialects.
When Joseph Vance, of whom De
Morgan wrote a hook, was a hoy in
London, the local dialect was like
"He's a-jjoin* for to fight Mr. (Sunn
heyont the Pinnerforty works, and you
better look sharp it' you want for to
Vance went away to South Amer-
ica and returned after many years to
find the Jargon altered "to this pat*
"It (the noise) was a lldy with a
biby liulitinu' another lidy and hoth
, was took off to the Stytlon."
All American dialects hav changed
in 50 years as that of London did,
with the possible exception of the
tongue spoken in the southern Appa-
luclrinn # country. Vet. to jud^e by
American comic papers and th. gen*
tleun ii ot the stage, our dialects are
as immutable a* the * stars. They
change no more than the laos of
Why would It not be a good idea
to appoint a committee to .wait on
editors of humorous periodicals and
the writers of plays and point out to
them politely that they speak the lan-
guage of people long in their graves
bonds for the purchase or construction | and supersede,lT-ToieUo Blt.de.
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The Hennessey Clipper (Hennessey, Okla.), Vol. 27, No. 40, Ed. 1 Thursday, March 8, 1917, newspaper, March 8, 1917; (https://gateway.okhistory.org/ark:/67531/metadc106067/m1/2/: accessed July 26, 2021), The Gateway to Oklahoma History, https://gateway.okhistory.org; crediting Oklahoma Historical Society.