The Hennessey Clipper. (Hennessey, Okla.), Vol. 18, No. 44, Ed. 1 Thursday, March 26, 1908 Page: 3 of 8

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BALKAN CRISIS
PROVOKED BY
POWERS' GREED
NATIONS NOT IN ACCORD
Alliance to Press Reforms Upon the Porte Crippled
by Inability of Christian Governments to A^ree
—Quarrel Among Themselves Over Loot and
Self-interest—Peace of the World Imperiled.
peninsula. He visited Soda and Bel-
grade. and advised the Servians an
well as the Bulgarians to cultivate
the more peaceful and above all more
lawabidlng methods In their Mace-
donian propaganda.
Count l.amsdorff then proceeded to
I Vienna, where he had many confer-
ences with Count Goluchowski, the
lie easily converted into cash. Other* '
were given brilliant decorations and I
honeyed speeches, it was quite no
tie^ablw rtat many of the foreign offi-
cers soon began to exhibit very little
\ interest In the people whom they
were sent to protect. "A vermin-
i stricken, mangy lot." Is the way one
i of the officers was reported to have
Austro-Hungarian minister of foreign | described the Christian peasants at a j
affairs. Together they drew up an- j concert in YilJiz Kiosk, and shortly j
other program of reforms, which afterward his wife appeared with a di- !
was, of course, immediately accepted i amond tiara, which Pern gossips .
by the porte in February. 1903. The | averred she had never been seen to
details of the proposed reforms are
unimportant here and now. They
JS THE HEN A PROFIT EARNING
FACTOR ON THE FARM?
Given a Square Deal and She Will Return an Affirmative
Answer —By Prof. Oscar Erf, Kansas.
Marquis of Argenson, Louis XV.'b
great minister, wrote: "The first,
great change that will take place in
Europe will probably be the conquest
oi Turkey, yhis empire grows weak-
er because or its bad government, and
because it is impossible that this gov-
ernment should become better, and
quite sure that it will grow worse.
The C^AA? OF
and if she had the intention, she has
not the money. This road would cost
millions, and goes through a difficult
and what railway men call a very
"lean" country. It would never pay;
that is, not within the ken of the
present generation, and could only
serve a political purpose which Russia
will be unable to pursue for many
years to come.
On the other hand, Austria has the
right to build her railway, or rather
the gaps in the present, system. It is
a right that was granted by an article
of the Berlin treaty, and it has not
lapsed simply because the Austrian
government has allowed the matter
to lie in abeyance for so many years.
The other rumored Austrian project of
building a road from her Bosnian-
Herzegovina system to the Adriatic,
and then down the coast to Montene-
gro, and ultimately to Greece, is a
sound idea, and one that would pay
for itself handsomely, at least so far
as Cattaro, and probably there is no
idea of pushing the road much fur-
ther in the immediate future.
Ready for Roads.
Under the fostering care of Herr
von Kallay, the provinces of Bosnia,
of Herzogovina, and in a measure, too,
Dalmatia have flourished under Aus-
trian rule and development. They are
never passed beyond the paper stage.
The integrity of the sultan's domin-
ions and his unimpaired sovereignty
were safeguarded by them, and
wear before.
Making No Progress.
So much time was taken in negotia-
tion and discussions, and. above
I entertainments, that few
well within the limits of policy
fined by that important article 23 of j
the treaty of Berlin.
A Bloody Insurrection.
The result of the application
all. in
the for-
anu j —
their proposals the powers remained elgn officers reached their respective
I posts until the fall or ISOo. The
French were sent to Seres, the Kng-
| lish to Drama, the Austrians to I'skub,
1 the Italians to Monastir and ihe Rns-
I shins to Saloniea. The Germans held
of j back even at this early date in the
these paper reforms did not remain in ; reform era. They only sent one ofll-
doubt for more than a week. Instead j cer, and he was Instructed to refuse
of the pacification and n peace ap- j to enter the disturbed districts. Ho
proaching that of paradise, which the contented himself with teaching Turk-
bureaucratic Russian oount prophe- |sh recruits the goose-step in the bar-
3ied would descend upon the blood j racks yards of Saloniea.
drenched land, came the most bloody | \s it ]la;1 well been said, every one
| and formidable insurrection that the ! ()f tho ,,owers wlaheB to modify the
rebellion-ridden country had ever j|iresent situation, but, unhappily. It
seen. It required SOO.OOO of the best j wnu;(i appear that each one wished
troops of the Ottoman forces to up- j ,0 modify it for Its personal advan-
liold Turkish authority, and even with j taKe, and. alas, profit. In a word the
this tremendous display o£ force, the i mnvs from Macedonia Is that the
Turks made but little headway again3t j champions of Christendom have come
the insurrection until the fail, when 110 blows, not with the assaBsins of the
many of the Ilulgarian bands, yielding ! suitan, who are seeking In desire; the
rather before the onset of winter than j remonnts of the congregation that St.
of the Turks, withdrew across the j Paul iOVed, but among themselves
frontier. | c)Ver ,v BOrdid question of political loot.
To bolster up their shattered pres-
tige In the Balkans, In consequence
of the summer's bloody work, tho I However, the statements niade in
czar of Russia and tho emperor of i ihe British parliament recently \iy
Austria met at Muerz3teg in October, government officia -■ in regard to tlv
As a result of tills imperial conference
the intervention of Europe in Mace
Gt A V- Y. u * '
yv-'
•*/- r\. _ ' • . . j
<- 4-'' it" I
W
if*3
Map of the Disturbed Region.
They are rising in the Ottoman em-
pire. Every day a feather falls from
the wings of the Turkish eagle."
So it seemed to this far-sighted man
several centuries ago, but to-day there
is only one fact of the Balkan situa-
tion upon which all sane westerners
agree, and that is the growing
strength of the Turkish military re-
sources. writes Stephen Bonsai in the
Philadelphia Ledger. That is a formid-
able body of trained and fanatical
ready for railways, and many more of
them. Ten years ago the complaint of
little Servia and the veto of Russia
would, of course, have brought these
projects to an untimely end, but to-
day the balance of power in the near
oast has changed as greatly as it has
in the far east, and the protests are
more likely to fall to the ground than
are the projected railways.
The story of the so-called reforms
in Macedonia is a sad and a sordid
men, some 300,000 strong, that tram i one- Officially, at least, all Christen
pies the Christian peasants of Mace-
donia under foot, and, after looking
the situation over, the intervening
powers oi' Christianity have not fallen
on this rugged host, but have fallen
out among themselves on a question
of railway concessions.
Thirst for Advantage.
The czar of holy Russia and Em-
peror Joseph, who was called to rule
the holy Roman empire, are exchang-
ing letters, which, while the diplomat-
ic forms are still obeyed, recall the
dom "with a long pull and a pull alto-
gether," has been unequal to the task
of making the "sick man of Europe" sit
up, or of bringing the "unspeakable
Turk" to book. In England alone of
all the great powers interested, and,
indeed, morally responsible for the
horrors of daily and hourly occurrence
in the luckless vilayets, is there any
appreciation of the dreadful situation.
Almost weekly the Macedonian com-
mittee, of which Lord Newton and Mr.
Gurney are tho most active members,
publish statistics setting forth
wordy wars of railway kings. The al- plainly as cold figures can make them
liance or entente between the powers
which was to press reforms upon the
porte that woulc} make it possible for
the Christian subjects of the porte
to live in peace and yet live Christian
lives, has been disrupted by the greed j
of gain and the thirst for political ad-
vantage experienced by the powers,
which have in the last decade plumed
themselves upon exercising a mandate
in Macedonia which they had received
from outraged humanity.
It is a pitiful end of the reform
decade, and the best that can be said
of the situation is that to-day the
Christian peasants are not much worse
off than they were before, and that
those who have survived their hard
experiences are probably muMi wiser
than they were when they began their
political schooling under such august
patronage. Taking the optimistic
view, the Turkish soldier is not al-
ways a brute and the Turkish effendi |
noi always a thief. Looking backward j
now, the more than decimated peas-
antry of the Macedonian highlands
doubtless recall the pleasant days of
before the uprising, the days when
they had not heard of a Pan-Slav or a
Pan-Hellenic propaganda, when they
didn't know whether they were Servi-
ans, Roumanians, Bulgariano or
Greeks, and didn't much care.
The Railway Row.
The railway row is clearly a pretext
for and not the cause of the split in
the joint Macedonian policy of Russia
and Austria. Russia has not even the
remotest intention of building a rail-
way from the Danube to the Adriatic,
that tho present laissez faire policy
of the powers has only served to repro-
duce a tableau of what in the iron age
the world must have been.
England Hampered.
The English humanitarians are ham-
pered in their work by the undeniable
fact that through the action of the
earl of Beaconsfield and Lord Salis-
bury at the Berlin congress, when they
thwarted Ignatieff's plan of a greater
Bulgaria, including a free Macedonia,
England is primarily responsible for
tho present status of affairs. They
are further hampered by the presence
in Constantinople of an incompetent
ambassador, who has given undeniable
proofs of his want of capacity in such
important posts as he has occupied in
Sofia, in Pekin and in St. Petersburg.
The first whisper of reform—in
what we call Macedonia—came in vir-
tue of the accord of 1879 between Aus-
tria and Russia, and their recognition
by other European states as the pow-
ers mostr directly concerned. The ad-
vice of the powers was accepted
gracefully—it always is—by the sttf-
tf u, and with the purpose of forestall-
ing any possible drastic action the
sultan himself drew up a program of
reforms, and appointed that adroit
diplomatist and profound student of
human nature, Hussein Hllmi Pasha,
inspector general of the disturbed
provinces.
Drawing Up Programs.
The moment Hilmi Pasha arrived at
Saloniea to assume his herculean task
the late Count Lamsdorff, the Russian
minister for foreign affairs, set out
for a visit to the capitals of the Balkan
World's Peace Imperiled.
Macedonian question go to show that
there v:as something in the reports
(Ionian affairs became for the first telegraphed some days ago about ihe
time direct, but the results of the
new course fell far short of expecta-
tions, in the first place because of the
wonderful ability of Hilmi Pasha to
checkmate every move made by the
agents of the powers, and in the sec-
ond because of the well-nigh insupera-
ble difficulty that was experienced in
bringing the agents of the powers to
act with unanimity or even in good
faith.
Buffers—on Paper.
However, at least, the Muerzsteg pro-
gram created two organs of control,
or buffers between the Turkish au-
thorities and the Christian peasants
of Macedonia. Two civil agents, one
Mons. Demerik, a Russian, and the
other Herr von Muller, an Austrian,
possible disruption of the concert of
the European powers and subsequent
trouble in the near east. The secre-
tary for foreign affairs saiu emphat-
ically that if Macedonia continued to
be neglected a catastrophe would
follow.
It is, indeed, time that effective re-
form measures should be put in force
in Macedonia for the go-)d of the
Christian inhabitants of the province.
A foreign general officer has been
in charge of the Macedonian
gendarmerie with other foreign offi-
cers under him, but supreme control
has remained in the hands of Turkish
officials. As long as that is the case
real reform is out of the question.
The British government, recogniz-
A representative of the Kansas ex-
periment station, during the summer
of 1905, made personal visits to over
100 farms located throughout the cen-
tral and eastern portions of the state.
Judging from these visits, the follow-
ing conclusion was drawn: Four-
fifths or more of the farmers have
houses separated from other buildings
for the accommodation of the farm
poultry. The majority of the remain-
ing farmers house their chickens in
lean-to sheds or in stables and parts
of other farm buildings. Some farm-
ers provide no building whatever for
their hens. Few farmers have yards
connected with their henhouses. A
still smaller number, and generally
those engaged in fancy-chicken breed-
ing. have partitioned houses and free
ranges.
The typical farm chicken house is
of a shed type, and an average size
of about 10 by 1(> feet. It is sided by
a single thickness of boards, which
may be patent siding. The interior is
for the most part occupied with roosts,
usually arranged in the form of a
ladder. The nests are commonly
open boxes, and may be set on the
floor or nailed to the wall.
Many different styles of chicken
houses prove equally successful in the
bands of poultrymen. It is unwise to
recommend the universal adoption of
any one form, if the following points
are given careful study, any farmer
should be able to build a successful
chicken house, suitable to his wants
and purse.
The house must be planned for the
hens' comfort first, and then the
owner may add such embellishments
rocks or other coarse material.
Above this layer should be placed a
layer of clay, wet and packed hard, so
the liens cannot scratch it up, or a
different plan may be used and the
floor constructed of a sandy or loamy
soil ot which the top layer can be re-
newed each year.
The object ot' ventilating a chicken
house is to supply a reasonable
amount of fresh air, and, equally im-
portant, to keep the house dry. Ven
tilation should not be by cracks or
open cupolas. Direct drafts of air are
injurious, and ventilation by such
means is always the greatest when
the least needed. A thorough scheme
of ventilation is by a system of pipes
that removes the foul air from near
the floor, while the corresponding
fresh air is forced to enter at the top
ot' the room. This system of ventila-
tion. when properly constructed,
works well, but there are other meth-
ods which are more practical. The
latest, best and cheapest scheme for
providing ventilation without drafts
is the curtain-front poultry house.
Such houses are constructed with a
portion of the south side made of can-
vas or oiled muslin attached to a
hinged frame. By such a provision
a steady current of fresh air enters
the house while the carbon dioxid
and moisture of the air pass outward
through the curtain. This ventilation
takes place without any air-current
and consequent cooling of the house,
in such houses similar curtains are
usually provided to inclose the roosts.
With this arrangement It Is possible
| to make a house an open shed In hot
i weather, or, as the weather grows
Kl W..-
/ iispiiife
...
Kansrs Experiment Station Poultry Hcu'e ar.d Storehouse No. 1.
World-Wide Distribution of the Mostem Faith.
At the present moment there Is a great revival of Pan-Islamie feeling, which Is
tile cause of many new and difficult problems wherever fast and west come into
contact. Moslems throughout the world followed the Russo-Japanese war with the
(greatest Interest, and they are keenly alive to the problem of Turkey. A writer
in the Times has pointed out that it is a mistake to believe that the awakening
Is due to a movement on the part of the Vildlz KiosU. Its causes lie deeper, and
Mohammedans are anxious to shake orr the reproach that their religion is only for
degenerate or conquered races. The distribution of lslamlsm Is shown In black.
were authorized to and expected to
control the action of the Turkish au-
thorities. They were expected to
shadow the inspector general, to indi-
cate to him the reforms which they
thought would prove helpful, and to
listen attentively to tho complaints
of the Christian inhabitants. They
were ordered and authorized to inves-
tigate all complaints that were
brought to their attention, but unfor-
tunately the Investigation had always
to be held in the presence of a Turk-
ish functionary—in other words under
circumstances where no Christian
peasant, after GOO years of Turkish su-
premacy, would dare to tell the truth.
Something more than moral support
was required to make the slave of cen-
turies stand up and defend himself.
In addition to the restraint of the
civil agents, there were appointed a
large number of foreign officers to
serve with the Turkish constabulary.
An Italian general was placed in com-
mand of the constabulary reorganiza-
tion scheme, and to him were attached
many of the foreign officers. The
scheme proved ineffectual from the
beginning. Instead of commanding the
gendarmerie in the field, the sultan
held, and imposed his view upon the
powers, that the foreign officers were
merely to act as instructors in schools
for aspirant constables. Six months,
a delay of tragic importance to the
hunted Christian peasantry of the
Macedonian highlands, was spent in
discussing the question whether t'le
European officers should wear Chris-
tian caps or the Turkish fez.
In the meanwhile the wily sultan
was more than friendly. Those of the
foreign officers who could be reached
In that way were loaded with rich
presents. So;ne of theBe presents
zhs <5orrAY of- rap&ry
ing that, raises the question whether
the time liaB not come for the appoint-
ment of a Christian governor for
Macedonia. The sultan may be ex-
pected to resist such an appointment,
for ho would see in It tho prelude to
the loss of the province. Turkish his-
tory has taught him that.
The secretary for foreign affairs
says the .concert of powers must either
justify or stultify itself. That is, it
must either demand further conces-
sions of Turkey or split tip. If it shall
do the latter, then Turkey will be ob-
durate and the peace of Europe may
be imperiled once more. Whether
any power is prepared to side with
Turkey and block reform In Mace-
donia "-emains to be seen. There have
been rumors that one or another
power would do this, but as yet noth-
were undeniably ot a kind that could lug is certain.
as may please his fancy. The hen
needs, first of all, floor space, a place
to eat and scratch. The more floor
space the hen Ins the better, but the I
spacc above should not be too gr. al,
so as to maintain Ihe proper tempera-
ture from the animal heat of the hens.
All things considered, a house just
high enough lor a man to walk erectly
and a floor space of about five
square feet per hen would be ad-
visable, depending somewhat whether
the fowls are yarded.
Lands sloping to south or south-
east, and that which dries quickly aft-
er a rain, will prove the most suitable
for chickens. A gumbo patch should
not be selected as a location for poul-
try. Hogs and herts should not occupy
the same quarters, in fact, should be
some distance apart, especially If
heavy breeds of chickens are kept.
Hens should b-: removed from the
garden, but may be near by or within
an orchard. Chicken houses should
be separated from toolsheds, stables
and other outbuildings.
Grading for chicken houses is not
commonly practiced, but this is the
easiest n.;-ans of preventing damp-
ness in the house, which Is a serious
handicap to successful poultry work.
The ground-level may be raised with
a plow and scraper, or the foundation
of the house may be first built and
before the frame is constructed filled i
with dirt.
A stone foundation is best, but
where stone is expensive may be re- |
placed by cedar, hemlock or Osage \
orange posts, deeply sot In the ground.
Small houses can be built by setting
tall posts in the ground and spiking
both sills and plates directly to these
posts. Colony houses are best built
on runners, and these may lie blocked
up <111 stones after each removal of the
house.
Floors are commonly constructed
of earth, boards or conieat. Cement
floors are perfectly sanitary and easy
to keep clean. The objection to their
common use Is the first cost of good ce- j
cmnt floors. Cheaply constructed floors
will not last. Hoard floors are very |
common and are preferred by many }
poultrymen, but if close to the ground j
they harbor rats, while if open uudor-
neath they make the house cold. |
Covering wet ground by a board floor
dees not remedy the fault of dampness
nearly so effectually as would a simi-
lar expenditure spent in raising the
f.oor and surrounding ground by
grading. All things considered, the
dirt floor is the mo3t suitable. This
should be made by filling In above the
outside ground-level. Tho drainage
will be facilitated if tho first layer
of this floor be of ciaders, small
colde r, to provide either one or two
walls between the roosting closet anil
the cuts!'?? air.
Slake ail rsosts on the same ievei.
Tiie ladder arrangement is a nuisance
and offers no advantage. Arrange tho
rcosts so that they may be readily re-
moved far cleaning. Do not fill tho
chicken house full of roosts. Put in
onl<- enough to accommodate tho
hens, and let these be on one side of
the house. The floor under the roosts
should be separated from the feeding
floor by a board set on edge, or, bettei
still, a tight roost-platform may bo
built under the perches. By this lat-
ter scheme the entire floor of the
house is available as a scratching
floor.
For laying flocks the nests must bs
clean, secluded and plentiful. Boxen
under the roost-platform will answer
but a better plan is to haVe the nest
upon a shelf above the ground flooi
under the roosting platform. The
nests shown in the plans for a poultry
house in this bulletin are so arrange:)
as to allow the hen to enter from the
dark side. They have no bottom and
may be readily removed and cleaned
Nests should be constructed so that
all parts are accessible to a white
wash brush, that the lice may be
eradicated. The fewer contrivances
in a chicken house the better.
A man who is engaged in carefui
poultry breeding will need one or
more yards, the extent and style oi
which will depend upon the kind oi
chickens bred and the number of pons
mated during the breeding season.
The farmer can get along very well
without any chicken yard at all. It
will, however, prove a very convenient
arrangement if a small yard is at
tached to the chicken house. The
house should lie arranged to open
either Into the yard or out into tho
range. This yard may be used for
fattening chickens or confining cock-
erels.
The farmer in general has not yet
fully recognized the full value of
poultry on the farm for supplying
food for his table. Besides the eggs
that they produce, which are being
recognized as one of the most whole-
some food products that we have, the
poultry should furnish to the farmer
the bulk of his meat for the year,
which can bo had at all times In a
fresh and healthy condition. There is
no othor meat that can be produced
as cheaply and Is as wholesome and
digestible according to the chemist's
analysis.
It Is hoped that tho farmers, and
all people who are in position to raise
poultry, will recognize the full value
of the poultry Industry.

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Miller, C. H. The Hennessey Clipper. (Hennessey, Okla.), Vol. 18, No. 44, Ed. 1 Thursday, March 26, 1908, newspaper, March 26, 1908; Hennessey, Oklahoma. (https://gateway.okhistory.org/ark:/67531/metadc105596/m1/3/ocr/: accessed September 20, 2021), The Gateway to Oklahoma History, https://gateway.okhistory.org; crediting Oklahoma Historical Society.

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